The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.61516
2 South Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 2.37378
3 Switzerland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.33787
4 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.25069
5 Germany 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89207
6 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.47134
7 Czech Republic 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.42049
8 United States 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.3899
9 United Kingdom 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.36113
10 Hungary 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.24403
11 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.17832
12 Slovakia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.16945
13 Italy 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.13343
14 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.13204
15 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.12618
16 Ireland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.10564
17 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 1.00689
18 Belgium 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.978514
19 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.75823
20 Poland 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.672875
21 Denmark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.662894
22 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.545405
23 Norway 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.518245
24 Croatia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.491664
25 Spain 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.431715
26 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.426
27 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.389823
28 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.368803
29 United Arab Emirates 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.304849
30 Lithuania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.252274
31 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.213795
32 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.141007
33 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.140373
34 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.139368
35 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.114576
36 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.049962
37 Turkey 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.0317636
38 Latvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.0284908
39 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.00202402
40 Greece 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.0404171
41 Brazil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.0835801
42 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0852673
43 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 -0.116362
44 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.159627
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.19239
46 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.221577
47 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.274391
48 South Africa 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.295213
49 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.382714
50 Egypt -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.395968
51 Mauritius -0.40707
52 Kyrgyzstan -0.457679
53 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.465951
54 New Zealand 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.472886
55 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.481255
56 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.501094
57 Dominican Republic -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.501275
58 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.606872
59 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.634878
60 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.694666
61 Sweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 -0.714396
62 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.746684
63 Cambodia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.750174
64 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.781491
65 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.834151
66 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.845389
67 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.871937
68 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.882143
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.899662
70 Morocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.944238
71 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.972731
72 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.99361
73 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.06909
74 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.0828
75 Mali -1.12138
76 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.12468
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13478
78 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.13883
79 Ethiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.16391
80 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.18288
81 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -1.22746
82 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.23583
83 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.31897
84 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.67118
85 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.34538
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saudi Arabia -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Republic of the Congo -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syria -0.670493
107 Lebanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Cameroon -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Burma -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad and Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Netherlands 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422