The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767
2 Switzerland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416
3 South Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403
4 Germany 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906
5 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081
6 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
7 Sweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477
8 Czech Republic 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023
9 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
10 Hungary 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749
11 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
12 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536
13 United Kingdom 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514
14 United States 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592
15 Ireland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565
16 Slovakia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947
17 Italy 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787
18 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672
19 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107
20 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926
21 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
22 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262
23 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052
24 Belgium 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484
25 Denmark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645
26 Netherlands 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
27 Poland 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384
28 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
29 Croatia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808
30 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564
31 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788
32 Norway 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789
33 Spain 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088
34 Lithuania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721
35 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929
36 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985
37 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821
38 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438
39 Latvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305
40 Turkey 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792
41 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417
42 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878
43 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
44 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278
45 Lebanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
46 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682
47 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485
48 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415
49 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792
50 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
51 Brazil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082
52 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124
53 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223
54 Greece 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527
55 South Africa 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863
56 New Zealand 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663
57 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357
58 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272
59 United Arab Emirates 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409
60 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658
61 Egypt -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803
62 Saudi Arabia -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
63 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769
64 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
65 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
66 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
67 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422
68 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472
69 Dominican Republic -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736
70 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842
71 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
72 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185
73 Cambodia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499
74 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582
75 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
76 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
77 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885
78 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885
79 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414
80 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642
81 Morocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625
82 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708
83 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
84 Republic of the Congo -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
85 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701
86 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
87 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031
88 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026
89 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509
90 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909
91 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658
92 Cameroon -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
93 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393
94 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565
95 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
96 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
97 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
98 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991
99 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419
100 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
101 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
102 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499
103 Ethiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649
104 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
105 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871
106 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
107 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
108 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
109 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
110 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
111 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776
112 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.06695 -1.29544
113 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
114 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
115 Syria -0.670493
116 Burma -1.27821
117 Trinidad and Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
118 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
119 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514
120 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
121 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559