The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.22938
2 Schweiz 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.0544
3 Deutschland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.95551
4 Südkorea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.79864
5 Schweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.75485
6 Singapur 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.71625
7 Österreich 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445 1.61209
8 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.59265
9 Vereinigte Staaten 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.58101
10 Tschechische Republik 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.57717
11 Finnland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829 1.55487
12 Slowenien 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199 1.44667
13 Irland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.44421
14 Frankreich 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.34955
15 Ungarn 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.29993
16 Slowakei 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.28447
17 Dänemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.23615
18 Belgien 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 1.21917
19 Italien 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.21412
20 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.186
21 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.14721
22 Niederlande 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275 1.10655
23 Norwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.03384
24 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.02913
25 Mexiko 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.932908
26 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.911251
27 Rumänien 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995 0.871347
28 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 0.865661
29 Spanien 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.841379
30 Kroatien 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.831182
31 Kanada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.767588
32 Saudi-Arabien -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486 0.766112
33 Hongkong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.749425
34 Weißrussland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.723198
35 Litauen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.703753
36 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247 0.671775
37 Lettland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.650211
38 Serbien 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.581892
39 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.555
40 Bulgarien 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.53637
41 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.482107
42 Russland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.467258
43 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257 0.455412
44 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.441168
45 Philippinen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.434081
46 Türkei 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.404726
47 Neuseeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.371123
48 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.3146
49 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603 0.248075
50 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.246693
51 Indien 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.236866
52 Brasilien 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.229095
53 Griechenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.222362
54 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.175781
55 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111 0.128739
56 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 0.112086
57 Mazedonien -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 0.105846
58 Tunesien 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.0973685
59 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0687142
60 Trinidad und Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712 0.00787162
61 Kolumbien -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.00253314
62 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.00355699
63 Südafrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0292484
64 Kirgisistan -0.0461406
65 Ägypten -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0702666
66 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304 -0.131597
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.136839
68 Kasachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.140565
69 Australien -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.16901
70 Argentinien -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.179818
71 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.216857
72 Mauritius -0.245542
73 Indonesien -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.253646
74 Jamaika -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.26616
75 Moldawien 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.300825
76 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.332587
77 Dominikanische Republik -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.352578
78 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617 -0.389103
79 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422 -0.392704
80 Uganda -0.44042
81 Albanien 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.487843
82 Kuba -0.507612
83 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.53243
84 Aserbaidschan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889 -0.545569
85 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544 -0.574449
86 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.579077
87 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.642897
88 Syrien -0.670493 -0.644997
89 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392 -0.658893
90 Usbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504 -0.663603
91 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.666548
92 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.68778
93 Algerien -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.715288
94 Liberia -0.7467
95 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.75663
96 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948 -0.803681
97 Kambodscha -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.860402
98 Mali -0.885402
99 Simbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.897424
100 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.988196
101 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.989348
102 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788 -1.00243
103 Tansania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.00641
104 Libyen -1.05141
105 Äthiopien -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.06155
106 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505 -1.06876
107 Tadschikistan -1.07242
108 Bolivien -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269 -1.09992
109 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136 -1.10671
110 Mongolei -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.11654
111 Bangladesch -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559 -1.22314
112 Sambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239 -1.22629
113 Kongo, Republik der -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235 -1.28535
114 Madagaskar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.32037
115 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.41096
116 Gabun -0.829728 -1.36163 -1.432
117 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774 -1.43747
118 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363 -1.46949
119 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491 -1.51738
120 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177 -1.54415
121 Mauretanien -1.86292 -1.6776 -1.59462
122 Mosambik -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672 -1.61157
123 Malawi -1.6499
124 Kamerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906 -1.65947
125 Papua-Neuguinea -1.74395
126 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331 -1.9858
127 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
128 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
129 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.06695 -1.29544
130 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
131 Birma -1.27821