The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1 Japan 2.37352 2.31842 2.29751 2.27406 2.30938
2 Schweiz 2.05181 1.99456 2.15805 2.22117 2.24386
3 Deutschland 1.84608 1.81367 2.09809 2.08459 2.07537
4 Singapur 1.71717 1.71171 1.746 1.79973 1.86534
5 Schweden 1.75214 1.6459 1.92429 1.86277 1.80773
6 Südkorea 1.82762 1.90646 1.65462 1.69142 1.77613
7 Vereinigte Staaten 1.43702 1.30167 1.8166 1.78168 1.75541
8 Finnland 1.57477 1.49895 1.77048 1.72464 1.70679
9 Tschechische Republik 1.53381 1.52129 1.67011 1.66047 1.6431
10 Österreich 1.72767 1.64981 1.68354 1.63921 1.62894
11 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.45544 1.40296 1.6425 1.5493 1.53259
12 Slowenien 1.4359 1.41088 1.42499 1.44739 1.4319
13 Irland 1.28901 1.22044 1.35298 1.40903 1.40023
14 Frankreich 1.24155 1.15748 1.41803 1.40465 1.38964
15 Ungarn 1.43941 1.38229 1.35493 1.37204 1.38444
16 Slowakei 1.21794 1.20436 1.31956 1.34513 1.3402
17 Israel 1.22703 1.14081 1.23759 1.27878 1.3146
18 Niederlande 0.818227 0.756212 1.31596 1.28874 1.30343
19 Dänemark 0.995356 0.95349 1.23141 1.21947 1.1577
20 Italien 1.21525 1.24155 1.11574 1.10767 1.11743
21 Mexiko 0.846744 0.953003 1.15387 1.16038 1.09955
22 Norwegen 0.614676 0.667969 1.21126 1.19882 1.09466
23 Polen 0.817343 0.839266 1.10641 1.09864 1.09432
24 Kanada 0.421886 0.411362 1.12953 1.08422 1.05671
25 Malaysia 0.810485 0.828817 0.938148 0.995461 0.971372
26 Estland 0.68394 0.752262 0.86561 0.843983 0.898422
27 Russland 0.048022 0.008439 0.855036 0.8547 0.852045
28 Spanien 0.700457 0.701443 0.820536 0.80013 0.777415
29 Saudi-Arabien -0.462099 -0.369927 0.870754 0.819673 0.747155
30 Weißrussland 0.689295 0.731427 0.836874 0.743585 0.743075
31 Rumänien 0.751166 0.787654 0.561038 0.620618 0.713669
32 Thailand 0.87724 0.955651 0.590169 0.650521 0.711704
33 China 1.04036 1.16379 0.60941 0.642376 0.691307
34 Litauen 0.673455 0.63807 0.667051 0.627923 0.675449
35 Lettland 0.478137 0.431584 0.629273 0.649569 0.653054
36 Kroatien 0.822129 0.837178 0.657789 0.666972 0.623091
37 Brasilien 0.032264 -0.151225 0.696066 0.648284 0.608252
38 Hongkong 1.26313 1.35236 0.426902 0.520167 0.594188
39 Ukraine 0.28954 0.268345 0.658954 0.619115 0.556886
40 Serbien 0.361921 0.366673 0.520936 0.546327 0.532947
41 Neuseeland -0.096978 -0.119421 0.59338 0.488085 0.483484
42 Katar -0.41667 -0.264365 0.322636 0.499297 0.396207
43 Philippinen 0.341858 0.477815 0.111666 0.220265 0.381087
44 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.562599 0.578374 0.32009 0.328647 0.372865
45 Indien -0.134587 -0.014696 0.254162 0.31413 0.359807
46 Bulgarien 0.278113 0.290812 0.358694 0.327278 0.347659
47 Südafrika -0.192079 -0.204966 0.303549 0.28477 0.268797
48 Portugal 0.433862 0.4937 0.255319 0.26363 0.258555
49 Costa Rica 0.158575 0.093993 0.135131 0.231586 0.237988
50 Argentinien -0.496513 -0.502072 0.462111 0.360496 0.232335
51 Uruguay -0.330617 -0.349791 0.220677 0.177011 0.207869
52 Türkei 0.287393 0.378481 0.133999 0.150909 0.175726
53 Kolumbien -0.234596 -0.194463 0.0953318 0.11439 0.144356
54 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate -0.090032 -0.362895 0.124122 0.0911202 0.128674
55 Griechenland -0.210378 -0.167862 0.113201 0.106201 0.125884
56 Panama 0.710402 -0.558959 0.0789054 0.124958 0.119062
57 Kuwait -1.49314 -0.836979 0.25958 0.235139 0.11607
58 Kasachstan -0.961147 -1.00924 0.0243757 0.157371 0.0883664
59 Australien -0.816851 -0.846322 0.0971997 0.146237 0.0863035
60 Libanon 0.107992 0.177455 0.11624 0.0486427 0.0803256
61 Chile -0.499261 -0.532363 0.0316813 0.0611241 0.0443139
62 Trinidad und Tobago -0.219598 -0.174918 -0.0506048
63 Georgia -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.13572 -0.104348 -0.0587891
64 Oman -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.297732 -0.0404026 -0.0609077
65 Jordan -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.0543591 -0.101439 -0.149852
66 Iran -0.934617 -0.157821 -0.158038
67 Jamaika -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.285952 -0.258965 -0.239734
68 Kirgisistan -0.430339 -0.33118 -0.286814
69 Tunesien 0.16411 0.214778 -0.323836 -0.323494 -0.287626
70 Mazedonien -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.39802 -0.379236 -0.290303
71 Indonesien -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.382548 -0.359668 -0.305644
72 Ägypten -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.376617 -0.346329 -0.319753
73 El Salvador -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.518145 -0.491815 -0.336211
74 Dominikanische Republik -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.422355 -0.382253 -0.363374
75 Kuba -0.274702 -0.379871
76 Moldawien -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.388113 -0.475939 -0.464417
77 Uganda -0.379853 -0.383244 -0.512514
78 Sambia -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.219831 -0.367271 -0.514087
79 Senegal -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.498182 -0.583953 -0.518687
80 Mauritius -0.666129 -0.638339 -0.579654
81 Peru -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.645699 -0.565693 -0.598962
82 Guatemala -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.555447 -0.57015 -0.616793
83 Vietnam -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.707104 -0.669703 -0.623084
84 Aserbaidschan -1.44358 -1.7818 -0.674689 -0.650166 -0.654587
85 Venezuela -0.942948 -0.667168 -0.655229
86 Paraguay -0.982503 -1.10231 -0.63956 -0.767192 -0.676455
87 Honduras -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.844833 -0.765916 -0.744556
88 Syrien -0.633554 -0.744963
89 Kenia -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.690631 -0.705736 -0.747829
90 Mali -1.29791 -0.99785 -0.767797
91 Malawi -0.438195 -0.468412 -0.768715
92 Albanien -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.896511 -0.90769 -0.781571
93 Mongolei -1.67769 -1.55696 -0.851358 -0.767706 -0.78801
94 Algerien -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.01136 -0.937221 -0.811671
95 Simbabwe -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.697917 -0.707958 -0.811801
96 Usbekistan -0.873889 -0.895987 -0.847152
97 Liberia -0.719266 -0.98089 -0.854269
98 Pakistan -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.922811 -0.935143 -0.859978
99 Marokko -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.877951 -0.861004 -0.89235
100 Kongo, Republik der -0.675039 -0.730753 -1.03802 -1.07835 -0.898092
101 Sri Lanka -0.530163 -0.369437 -1.05527 -0.972538 -0.901589
102 Ecuador -1.06674 -1.30875 -0.768335 -0.950771 -0.933232
103 Mauretanien -0.833422 -0.963114
104 Libyen -1.26778 -0.965428
105 Jemen -1.34438 -0.912604 -0.757001 -0.97195
106 Kamerun -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.0069 -0.814567 -1.01371
107 Tansania -0.919298 -1.03347 -0.879252 -0.97857 -1.01705
108 Bolivien -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.06538 -1.06344 -1.07744
109 Tadschikistan -1.17436 -1.03731 -1.10384
110 Cote d'Ivoire -1.05279 -1.17654 -0.965066 -0.987537 -1.12772
111 Ghana -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.04762 -1.21682 -1.15388
112 Turkmenistan -1.48447 -1.27173 -1.19506
113 Gabun -1.06145 -1.36159 -1.22477
114 Mosambik -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.18598 -1.18114 -1.24908
115 Laos -1.21682 -1.19835 -1.25108
116 Äthiopien -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.31886 -1.30394 -1.27445
117 Angola -1.25745 -1.16876 -1.3177
118 Nicaragua -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.31615 -1.34285 -1.33756
119 Kambodscha -0.904026 -0.723043 -1.47629 -1.44677 -1.37692
120 Sudan -1.873 -1.84461 -1.53738 -1.63482 -1.45787
121 Madagaskar -0.823322 -0.820193 -1.49269 -1.47536 -1.45882
122 Guinea -2.17828 -1.22835 -1.44215 -1.51688
123 Bangladesch -1.17559 -1.76105 -1.77822 -1.71442
124 Nigeria -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.60088 -1.73247 -1.90268
125 Papua-Neuguinea -1.75799 -2.00821
126 Togo -0.671987 -0.462205
127 Namibia -0.328879 -0.381863
128 Botswana -0.574288 -0.790862
129 Belgien 0.951062 0.90581