The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.27782
2 Schweiz 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.17213
3 Deutschland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 2.10076
4 Schweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.86322
5 Südkorea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.83839
6 Singapur 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.7998
7 Vereinigte Staaten 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.77468
8 Tschechische Republik 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.75172
9 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54403
10 Ungarn 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.50353
11 Irland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.4875
12 Frankreich 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.48178
13 Slowakei 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.45202
14 Dänemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.30706
15 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.30363
16 Mexiko 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 1.27347
17 Kanada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 1.236
18 Italien 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.22921
19 Norwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.21448
20 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.21063
21 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.07889
22 Russland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 1.02807
23 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.01713
24 Spanien 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.944616
25 Weißrussland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.910243
26 Lettland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.872009
27 Kroatien 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.85713
28 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.850874
29 Litauen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.805056
30 Brasilien 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.783805
31 Hongkong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.770096
32 Serbien 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.730838
33 Neuseeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.659255
34 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.62899
35 Philippinen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.570308
36 Bulgarien 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.568975
37 Indien 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.533078
38 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.495774
39 Kasachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 0.488584
40 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.481395
41 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.4501
42 Südafrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 0.42691
43 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.40826
44 Türkei 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.371222
45 Argentinien -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 0.356488
46 Griechenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.353763
47 Kolumbien -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 0.323295
48 Bahrein 0.274286
49 Australien -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 0.273459
50 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.254851
51 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 0.180979
52 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 0.169247
53 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 0.154263
54 Kirgisistan 0.129527
55 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0669913
56 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 0.0
57 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 0.0
58 Belgien 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.0
59 Tunesien 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.025504
60 Indonesien -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0401054
61 Mazedonien -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.0478946
62 Ägypten -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0564826
63 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.0734745
64 Jamaika -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.0971355
65 Dominikanische Republik -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.145607
66 Armenien -0.213839
67 Moldawien 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.236181
68 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.316394
69 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.323136
70 Algerien -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.364908
71 Mauritius -0.375307
72 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.381733
73 Albanien 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.464026
74 Simbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.510255
75 Mongolei -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -0.554225
76 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.555949
77 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.556652
78 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.572574
79 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.589646
80 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.644255
81 Mali -0.678011
82 Mauretanien -1.86292 -1.6776 -0.80395
83 Tansania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -0.901479
84 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -0.901528
85 Äthiopien -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -0.959502
86 Kambodscha -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.964806
87 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.981452
88 Birma -1.27821 -1.13827
89 Madagaskar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.22675
90 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
91 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
92 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
93 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
94 Rumänien 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
95 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
96 Saudi-Arabien -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
97 Kongo, Republik der -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
98 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
99 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.06695 -1.29544
100 Gabun -0.829728 -1.36163
101 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
102 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
103 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
104 Finnland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
105 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
106 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
107 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
108 Österreich 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
109 Syrien -0.670493
110 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
111 Kamerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
112 Mosambik -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
113 Trinidad und Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
114 Niederlande 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
115 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
116 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
117 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
118 Sambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
119 Usbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
120 Bangladesch -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
121 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
122 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
123 Bolivien -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
124 Aserbaidschan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
125 Slowenien 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
126 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422