The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.61516
2 Südkorea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 2.37378
3 Schweiz 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.33787
4 Singapur 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.25069
5 Deutschland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89207
6 Hongkong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.47134
7 Tschechische Republik 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.42049
8 Vereinigte Staaten 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.3899
9 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.36113
10 Ungarn 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.24403
11 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.17832
12 Slowakei 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.16945
13 Italien 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.13343
14 Frankreich 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.13204
15 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.12618
16 Irland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.10564
17 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 1.00689
18 Belgien 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.978514
19 Mexiko 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.75823
20 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.672875
21 Dänemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.662894
22 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.545405
23 Norwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.518245
24 Kroatien 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.491664
25 Spanien 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.431715
26 Weißrussland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.426
27 Philippinen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.389823
28 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.368803
29 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.304849
30 Litauen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.252274
31 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.213795
32 Indien 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.141007
33 Kanada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.140373
34 Bulgarien 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.139368
35 Serbien 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.114576
36 Russland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.049962
37 Türkei 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.0317636
38 Lettland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.0284908
39 Tunesien 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.00202402
40 Griechenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.0404171
41 Brasilien 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.0835801
42 Indonesien -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0852673
43 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 -0.116362
44 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.159627
45 Kolumbien -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.19239
46 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.221577
47 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.274391
48 Südafrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.295213
49 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.382714
50 Ägypten -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.395968
51 Mauritius -0.40707
52 Kirgisistan -0.457679
53 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.465951
54 Neuseeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.472886
55 Moldawien 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.481255
56 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.501094
57 Dominikanische Republik -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.501275
58 Mazedonien -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.606872
59 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.634878
60 Jamaika -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.694666
61 Schweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 -0.714396
62 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.746684
63 Kambodscha -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.750174
64 Kasachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.781491
65 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.834151
66 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.845389
67 Albanien 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.871937
68 Argentinien -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.882143
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.899662
70 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.944238
71 Australien -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.972731
72 Algerien -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.99361
73 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.06909
74 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.0828
75 Mali -1.12138
76 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.12468
77 Simbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13478
78 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.13883
79 Äthiopien -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.16391
80 Madagaskar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.18288
81 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -1.22746
82 Tansania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.23583
83 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.31897
84 Mongolei -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.67118
85 Mauretanien -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.34538
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Rumänien 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saudi-Arabien -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Kongo, Republik der -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabun -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finnland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Österreich 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syrien -0.670493
107 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Kamerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birma -1.27821
110 Mosambik -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad und Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Niederlande 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Sambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Usbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesch -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivien -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Aserbaidschan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slowenien 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422