The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Schweiz 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.59625
2 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.4687
3 Singapur 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.12695
4 Südkorea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.9776
5 Deutschland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89589
6 Schweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.59228
7 Vereinigte Staaten 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.55257
8 Vereinigtes Königreich 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54527
9 Tschechische Republik 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.39521
10 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.37382
11 Irland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.31298
12 Hongkong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.23447
13 Frankreich 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.15695
14 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.03133
15 Ungarn 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.02935
16 Belgien 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.99588
17 Italien 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 0.949015
18 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.89219
19 Slowakei 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 0.866871
20 Norwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.822228
21 Dänemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.808458
22 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.735418
23 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.649198
24 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.584897
25 Mexiko 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.572282
26 Litauen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.462709
27 Kroatien 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.417804
28 Spanien 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.387094
29 Kanada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.342765
30 Weißrussland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.337386
31 Vereinigte Arabische Emirate 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.241859
32 Lettland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.197157
33 Bulgarien 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.169379
34 Russland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.142872
35 Serbien 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.0745877
36 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.0657328
37 Indien 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.0490719
38 Philippinen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.0489485
39 Bosnien und Herzegowina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.0324603
40 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.0100069
41 Türkei 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 -0.0383133
42 Südafrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0385376
43 Tunesien 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.0927338
44 Brasilien 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.103021
45 Kolumbien -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.123219
46 Neuseeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.126994
47 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.177184
48 Griechenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.19882
49 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.263641
50 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.350881
51 Indonesien -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.365108
52 Ägypten -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.410868
53 Mazedonien -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.423583
54 Mauritius -0.429113
55 Australien -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.468001
56 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.52902
57 Kirgisistan -0.570333
58 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.572063
59 Dominikanische Republik -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.599903
60 Argentinien -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.622054
61 Jamaika -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.657155
62 Kasachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.703193
63 Moldawien 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.734169
64 Algerien -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.781585
65 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.808596
66 Kambodscha -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.819875
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.843737
68 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.852336
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.855573
70 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -0.987254
71 Albanien 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.997802
72 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.04279
73 Mali -1.06046
74 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.06616
75 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -1.09205
76 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.11161
77 Simbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13868
78 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.19204
79 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -1.20526
80 Tansania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.20639
81 Äthiopien -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.3311
82 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.3774
83 Madagaskar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.56216
84 Mongolei -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.76497
85 Mauretanien -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.26649
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Rumänien 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saudi-Arabien -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Kongo, Republik der -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Kongo, Demokratische Republik -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabun -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finnland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Österreich 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syrien -0.670493
107 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Kamerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birma -1.27821
110 Mosambik -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad und Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Niederlande 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Sambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Usbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesch -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivien -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Aserbaidschan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slowenien 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422