The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Download    Download All Years

Showing

Year Range

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.22938
2 Switzerland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.0544
3 Germany 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.95551
4 South Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.79864
5 Sweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.75485
6 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.71625
7 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445 1.61209
8 United Kingdom 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.59265
9 United States 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.58101
10 Czech Republic 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.57717
11 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829 1.55487
12 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199 1.44667
13 Ireland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.44421
14 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.34955
15 Hungary 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.29993
16 Slovakia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.28447
17 Denmark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.23615
18 Belgium 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 1.21917
19 Italy 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.21412
20 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.186
21 Poland 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.14721
22 Netherlands 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275 1.10655
23 Norway 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.03384
24 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.02913
25 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.932908
26 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.911251
27 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995 0.871347
28 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 0.865661
29 Spain 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.841379
30 Croatia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.831182
31 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.767588
32 Saudi Arabia -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486 0.766112
33 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.749425
34 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.723198
35 Lithuania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.703753
36 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247 0.671775
37 Latvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.650211
38 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.581892
39 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.555
40 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.53637
41 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.482107
42 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.467258
43 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257 0.455412
44 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.441168
45 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.434081
46 Turkey 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.404726
47 New Zealand 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.371123
48 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.3146
49 Lebanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603 0.248075
50 United Arab Emirates 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.246693
51 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.236866
52 Brazil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.229095
53 Greece 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.222362
54 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.175781
55 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111 0.128739
56 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 0.112086
57 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 0.105846
58 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.0973685
59 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0687142
60 Trinidad and Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712 0.00787162
61 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.00253314
62 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.00355699
63 South Africa 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0292484
64 Kyrgyzstan -0.0461406
65 Egypt -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0702666
66 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304 -0.131597
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.136839
68 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.140565
69 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.16901
70 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.179818
71 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.216857
72 Mauritius -0.245542
73 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.253646
74 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.26616
75 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.300825
76 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.332587
77 Dominican Republic -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.352578
78 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617 -0.389103
79 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422 -0.392704
80 Uganda -0.44042
81 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.487843
82 Cuba -0.507612
83 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.53243
84 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889 -0.545569
85 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544 -0.574449
86 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.579077
87 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.642897
88 Syria -0.670493 -0.644997
89 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392 -0.658893
90 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504 -0.663603
91 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.666548
92 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.68778
93 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.715288
94 Liberia -0.7467
95 Morocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.75663
96 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948 -0.803681
97 Cambodia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.860402
98 Mali -0.885402
99 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.897424
100 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.988196
101 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.989348
102 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788 -1.00243
103 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.00641
104 Libya -1.05141
105 Ethiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.06155
106 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505 -1.06876
107 Tajikistan -1.07242
108 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269 -1.09992
109 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136 -1.10671
110 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.11654
111 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559 -1.22314
112 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239 -1.22629
113 Republic of the Congo -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235 -1.28535
114 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.32037
115 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.41096
116 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163 -1.432
117 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774 -1.43747
118 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363 -1.46949
119 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491 -1.51738
120 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177 -1.54415
121 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -1.59462
122 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672 -1.61157
123 Malawi -1.6499
124 Cameroon -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906 -1.65947
125 Papua New Guinea -1.74395
126 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331 -1.9858
127 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
128 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
129 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.06695 -1.29544
130 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
131 Burma -1.27821