The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Switzerland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.59625
2 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.4687
3 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.12695
4 South Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.9776
5 Germany 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89589
6 Sweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.59228
7 United States 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.55257
8 United Kingdom 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54527
9 Czech Republic 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.39521
10 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.37382
11 Ireland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.31298
12 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.23447
13 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.15695
14 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.03133
15 Hungary 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.02935
16 Belgium 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.99588
17 Italy 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 0.949015
18 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.89219
19 Slovakia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 0.866871
20 Norway 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.822228
21 Denmark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.808458
22 Poland 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.735418
23 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.649198
24 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.584897
25 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.572282
26 Lithuania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.462709
27 Croatia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.417804
28 Spain 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.387094
29 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.342765
30 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.337386
31 United Arab Emirates 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.241859
32 Latvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.197157
33 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.169379
34 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.142872
35 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.0745877
36 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.0657328
37 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.0490719
38 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.0489485
39 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.0324603
40 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.0100069
41 Turkey 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 -0.0383133
42 South Africa 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0385376
43 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.0927338
44 Brazil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.103021
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.123219
46 New Zealand 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.126994
47 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.177184
48 Greece 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.19882
49 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.263641
50 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.350881
51 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.365108
52 Egypt -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.410868
53 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.423583
54 Mauritius -0.429113
55 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.468001
56 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.52902
57 Kyrgyzstan -0.570333
58 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.572063
59 Dominican Republic -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.599903
60 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.622054
61 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.657155
62 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.703193
63 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.734169
64 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.781585
65 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.808596
66 Cambodia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.819875
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.843737
68 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.852336
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.855573
70 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -0.987254
71 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.997802
72 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.04279
73 Mali -1.06046
74 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.06616
75 Morocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -1.09205
76 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.11161
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13868
78 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.19204
79 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -1.20526
80 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.20639
81 Ethiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.3311
82 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.3774
83 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.56216
84 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.76497
85 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.26649
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saudi Arabia -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Republic of the Congo -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syria -0.670493
107 Lebanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Cameroon -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Burma -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad and Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Netherlands 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422