The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970
1 Germany 2.26339 2.28536 2.29043 2.28258 2.30919
2 Switzerland 2.12901 2.12217 2.1625 2.09088 2.13549
3 United Kingdom 1.98672 2.03884 2.0158 2.03973 2.0578
4 Austria 1.99344 2.0393 1.98078 1.92701 1.99157
5 Sweden 2.02008 2.06452 2.05498 1.97973 1.98691
6 Japan 1.87131 1.85351 1.92797 1.94451 1.97001
7 Italy 1.74434 1.86891 1.81562 1.80442 1.84658
8 United States 1.73973 1.75501 1.80736 1.82113 1.75874
9 France 1.73585 1.7497 1.75071 1.73018 1.73046
10 Belgium 1.58396 1.58365 1.53657 1.52145 1.46409
11 Finland 1.4211 1.32294 1.38039 1.45759 1.42408
12 Denmark 1.31681 1.31177 1.30555 1.32305 1.38827
13 Norway 1.4278 1.41304 1.38974 1.38927 1.31026
14 Hong Kong 1.29783 1.28684 1.28635 1.26272 1.28574
15 Netherlands 1.33897 1.33455 1.30488 1.28544 1.28366
16 Zimbabwe 0.732448 0.718401 0.922071 1.08494 1.15234
17 Hungary 1.23699 1.20968 1.10248 1.02343 1.01005
18 Ireland 1.01241 1.06419 0.948167 0.879141 0.967741
19 Portugal 0.851548 0.909755 0.895702 0.946908 0.940221
20 Panama 0.931072 0.702627 0.900246 0.885879 0.933754
21 Spain 0.603584 0.643186 0.602475 0.805464 0.864415
22 Poland 1.08374 0.995543 0.882682 0.893808 0.833854
23 Canada 0.769482 0.75826 0.803205 0.829068 0.671882
24 Lebanon 0.201751 0.517729 0.490028 0.533752 0.647574
25 South Korea 0.829615 0.773875 0.708068 0.732955 0.621873
26 Israel 0.772181 0.647967 0.627411 0.712611 0.617849
27 Romania 0.319795 0.404673 0.464902 0.633043 0.606859
28 Jordan 0.378245 0.421167 0.495193 0.596004 0.597902
29 Costa Rica 0.544684 0.687943 0.659682 0.543581 0.585106
30 China 0.475237 0.511791 0.564777 0.541641 0.56752
31 El Salvador 0.336836 0.443734 0.579651 0.547753 0.565368
32 Bulgaria 0.741352 0.585614 0.486855 0.530517 0.514371
33 Guatemala 0.121919 0.178804 0.205069 0.351906 0.321518
34 Greece 0.232929 0.133309 0.172181 0.117929 0.263971
35 Uruguay 0.305691 0.278787 0.335919 0.180582 0.261768
36 Mexico 0.220775 0.031729 0.036176 0.113615 0.256898
37 Nicaragua -0.196804 0.02291 0.080425 0.111926 0.237144
38 India 0.027834 -0.103239 -0.069321 0.052822 0.146517
39 New Zealand 0.291451 0.23008 0.116224 0.122129 0.136762
40 Australia 0.245572 0.183548 0.268314 0.135157 0.068696
41 Singapore 0.176202 0.23718 0.256625 0.131842 0.063316
42 Trinidad and Tobago -0.279269 -0.183314 0.019173 0.136406 0.01314
43 Vietnam -0.284037 -0.216628 -0.015737 -0.201158 -0.021656
44 Albania 0.001056 0.210635 0.056063 0.061086 -0.024968
45 Chile 0.124412 -0.025874 -0.20273 -0.017258 -0.071417
46 Qatar -0.410999 -1.56943 -1.61823 -0.645333 -0.07853
47 Tunisia -0.181228 -0.299681 -0.239807 -0.084226 -0.134677
48 Egypt -0.121717 -0.086774 -0.152495 -0.214962 -0.136492
49 Argentina -0.186694 -0.281353 -0.2747 -0.248754 -0.139189
50 Honduras -0.29557 -0.333715 -0.197737 -0.20942 -0.177444
51 Colombia 0.116634 -0.020913 -0.168593 -0.360003 -0.193596
52 Pakistan -0.302056 -0.196449 -0.367673 -0.368162 -0.231935
53 Jamaica -0.386714 -0.456648 -0.343456 -0.358714 -0.259814
54 Morocco -0.249372 -0.34405 -0.387013 -0.411634 -0.315138
55 South Africa -0.246495 -0.283275 -0.383453 -0.409667 -0.365206
56 Syria -0.201459 -0.29768 -0.255758 -0.502398 -0.433337
57 Philippines -0.598227 -0.590185 -0.479011 -0.540272 -0.477216
58 Algeria -0.298926 -0.326832 -0.469397 -0.521161 -0.492765
59 Paraguay -0.706845 -0.493552 -0.587674 -0.674242 -0.503316
60 Senegal -0.546367 -0.45705 -0.377609 -0.425614 -0.503889
61 Turkey -0.715804 -0.835135 -0.864073 -0.850097 -0.545683
62 Brazil -0.867307 -0.849452 -0.702449 -0.565923 -0.54633
63 Kenya -0.848143 -0.785431 -0.731571 -0.752076 -0.574831
64 Mauritania -1.11776 -1.15008 -1.01189 -0.541496 -0.604379
65 Laos -0.815614 -0.923599 -0.641542
66 Malaysia -0.702983 -0.500469 -0.439566 -0.579548 -0.678805
67 Venezuela -0.253681 -0.290236 -0.394938 -0.424707 -0.687622
68 Dominican Republic -0.666334 -0.73996 -0.826126 -0.558 -0.688536
69 United Arab Emirates 1.02527 0.693872 -0.734606
70 Bolivia -0.781309 -0.841633 -0.876756 -0.926964 -0.792537
71 Mozambique -0.925499 -0.960654 -0.869069 -0.821813 -0.80825
72 Cameroon -1.27345 -0.972631 -0.758248 -0.843236 -0.817342
73 Thailand -0.974265 -1.02722 -0.870876 -0.841727 -0.826566
74 Iran -0.774142 -0.80783 -0.823465 -0.76819 -0.82755
75 Saudi Arabia -0.831977 -0.847359 -0.943115 -0.62291 -0.879255
76 Peru -0.566836 -0.593102 -0.697814 -0.688604 -0.907499
77 Kuwait -0.878879 -0.924902 -1.10223 -0.991073 -0.916529
78 Sri Lanka -1.12994 -1.05778 -1.11778 -0.908343 -0.94655
79 Republic of the Congo -1.01512 -0.85448 -0.857768 -0.844418 -0.96419
80 Ecuador -0.684339 -0.782771 -0.891331 -0.911034 -0.998564
81 Madagascar -1.00572 -1.04663 -1.0524 -1.05855 -1.00788
82 Ethiopia -0.879627 -0.853689 -0.932435 -0.87046 -1.02267
83 Ghana -1.04538 -0.953906 -0.773767 -0.851496 -1.05177
84 Togo -1.16147 -0.982953 -1.01094 -1.36065 -1.07225
85 Guinea -1.22868 -1.0714 -1.09043 -1.16134 -1.102
86 Cote d'Ivoire -0.998812 -0.947142 -1.00629 -1.18414 -1.10706
87 Burma -1.03755 -0.980183 -1.06872 -1.13729 -1.1461
88 Oman -0.880721 -0.546423 -1.33728 -1.40809 -1.1488
89 Cambodia -0.928722 -0.950048 -0.870425 -0.922801 -1.19009
90 Angola -1.17056 -1.03878 -1.23318 -1.22352 -1.20874
91 Tanzania -1.33051 -1.29203 -1.23856 -1.30574 -1.23245
92 Gabon -1.51319 -1.45307 -1.24293 -1.41464 -1.24468
93 Indonesia -1.23754 -1.12068 -1.10962 -1.0897 -1.26172
94 Zambia -0.541125 -0.743592 -0.792187 -0.842796 -1.29254
95 Sudan -1.20651 -1.36767 -1.18166 -1.39571 -1.30781
96 Nigeria -1.58372 -1.50863 -1.43376 -1.6612 -1.70208