The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972
1 Germany 2.29043 2.28258 2.30919 2.24741 2.29945
2 Switzerland 2.1625 2.09088 2.13549 2.01508 2.04004
3 United Kingdom 2.0158 2.03973 2.0578 2.03752 2.03438
4 Sweden 2.05498 1.97973 1.98691 1.91456 2.03225
5 Japan 1.92797 1.94451 1.97001 1.93272 1.98772
6 Austria 1.98078 1.92701 1.99157 1.96936 1.94613
7 Italy 1.81562 1.80442 1.84658 1.81948 1.8205
8 United States 1.80736 1.82113 1.75874 1.69342 1.71798
9 France 1.75071 1.73018 1.73046 1.69848 1.66878
10 Belgium 1.53657 1.52145 1.46409 1.48649 1.47614
11 Finland 1.38039 1.45759 1.42408 1.35226 1.37407
12 Denmark 1.30555 1.32305 1.38827 1.35966 1.37284
13 Hong Kong 1.28635 1.26272 1.28574 1.22027 1.24999
14 Netherlands 1.30488 1.28544 1.28366 1.24771 1.24832
15 Norway 1.38974 1.38927 1.31026 1.24371 1.23394
16 Hungary 1.10248 1.02343 1.01005 1.01019 0.977467
17 Ireland 0.948167 0.879141 0.967741 1.00326 0.966161
18 Zimbabwe 0.922071 1.08494 1.15234 1.1095 0.959187
19 Spain 0.602475 0.805464 0.864415 0.916294 0.921629
20 Portugal 0.895702 0.946908 0.940221 0.947728 0.897661
21 Poland 0.882682 0.893808 0.833854 0.875648 0.844756
22 Romania 0.464902 0.633043 0.606859 0.697563 0.740619
23 Canada 0.803205 0.829068 0.671882 0.709441 0.723165
24 Israel 0.627411 0.712611 0.617849 0.64909 0.692241
25 El Salvador 0.579651 0.547753 0.565368 0.554931 0.678434
26 Lebanon 0.490028 0.533752 0.647574 0.599343 0.631402
27 South Korea 0.708068 0.732955 0.621873 0.627842 0.626045
28 Qatar -1.61823 -0.645333 -0.07853 0.046028 0.609986
29 Bulgaria 0.486855 0.530517 0.514371 0.588835 0.589544
30 Costa Rica 0.659682 0.543581 0.585106 0.474371 0.577735
31 Panama 0.900246 0.885879 0.933754 0.606507 0.543671
32 China 0.564777 0.541641 0.56752 0.525819 0.514375
33 Trinidad and Tobago 0.019173 0.136406 0.01314 0.351749 0.44187
34 New Zealand 0.116224 0.122129 0.136762 0.22548 0.353045
35 Mexico 0.036176 0.113615 0.256898 0.348713 0.319915
36 Jordan 0.495193 0.596004 0.597902 0.689381 0.319037
37 Uruguay 0.335919 0.180582 0.261768 0.298024 0.271904
38 Guatemala 0.205069 0.351906 0.321518 0.314459 0.240257
39 Greece 0.172181 0.117929 0.263971 0.314837 0.221012
40 Singapore 0.256625 0.131842 0.063316 0.010946 0.207166
41 Nicaragua 0.080425 0.111926 0.237144 0.158069 0.168931
42 India -0.069321 0.052822 0.146517 0.151577 0.111218
43 Albania 0.056063 0.061086 -0.024968 0.089795 0.09419
44 Egypt -0.152495 -0.214962 -0.136492 -0.026385 0.084044
45 Chile -0.20273 -0.017258 -0.071417 0.013151 0.065106
46 Australia 0.268314 0.135157 0.068696 0.057807 0.043605
47 Argentina -0.2747 -0.248754 -0.139189 -0.117285 -0.021875
48 Colombia -0.168593 -0.360003 -0.193596 -0.118563 -0.088109
49 Morocco -0.387013 -0.411634 -0.315138 -0.194403 -0.18728
50 Vietnam -0.015737 -0.201158 -0.021656 -0.234389 -0.195863
51 Jamaica -0.343456 -0.358714 -0.259814 -0.207051 -0.205072
52 Tunisia -0.239807 -0.084226 -0.134677 -0.214765 -0.277761
53 South Africa -0.383453 -0.409667 -0.365206 -0.288454 -0.290437
54 Senegal -0.377609 -0.425614 -0.503889 -0.449499 -0.308306
55 Pakistan -0.367673 -0.368162 -0.231935 -0.247639 -0.317045
56 Kenya -0.731571 -0.752076 -0.574831 -0.289811 -0.374348
57 Syria -0.255758 -0.502398 -0.433337 -0.289283 -0.387965
58 Dominican Republic -0.826126 -0.558 -0.688536 -0.443618 -0.40791
59 Honduras -0.197737 -0.20942 -0.177444 -0.273195 -0.409435
60 Turkey -0.864073 -0.850097 -0.545683 -0.515846 -0.467437
61 United Arab Emirates 1.02527 0.693872 -0.734606 -0.325083 -0.483392
62 Kuwait -1.10223 -0.991073 -0.916529 -0.707222 -0.530043
63 Togo -1.01094 -1.36065 -1.07225 -0.6516 -0.533978
64 Brazil -0.702449 -0.565923 -0.54633 -0.614586 -0.546039
65 Philippines -0.479011 -0.540272 -0.477216 -0.447083 -0.55777
66 Venezuela -0.394938 -0.424707 -0.687622 -0.88009 -0.572191
67 Algeria -0.469397 -0.521161 -0.492765 -0.387895 -0.581162
68 Bangladesh -0.583664
69 Paraguay -0.587674 -0.674242 -0.503316 -0.492994 -0.612634
70 Malaysia -0.439566 -0.579548 -0.678805 -0.882138 -0.719569
71 Thailand -0.870876 -0.841727 -0.826566 -0.852995 -0.778683
72 Bolivia -0.876756 -0.926964 -0.792537 -0.780383 -0.795227
73 Peru -0.697814 -0.688604 -0.907499 -0.826122 -0.795581
74 Iran -0.823465 -0.76819 -0.82755 -0.805196 -0.832824
75 Madagascar -1.0524 -1.05855 -1.00788 -0.962487 -0.889362
76 Mozambique -0.869069 -0.821813 -0.80825 -0.795592 -0.900928
77 Laos -0.815614 -0.923599 -0.641542 -0.73136 -0.92082
78 Saudi Arabia -0.943115 -0.62291 -0.879255 -1.01507 -0.924268
79 Mauritania -1.01189 -0.541496 -0.604379 -0.632401 -0.934725
80 Cameroon -0.758248 -0.843236 -0.817342 -0.935888 -0.958583
81 Ghana -0.773767 -0.851496 -1.05177 -0.993839 -1.04168
82 Burma -1.06872 -1.13729 -1.1461 -1.37593 -1.05842
83 Republic of the Congo -0.857768 -0.844418 -0.96419 -0.964024 -1.07979
84 Guinea -1.09043 -1.16134 -1.102 -0.846298 -1.08984
85 Cambodia -0.870425 -0.922801 -1.19009 -1.07522 -1.10812
86 Ecuador -0.891331 -0.911034 -0.998564 -1.07145 -1.11334
87 Sri Lanka -1.11778 -0.908343 -0.94655 -1.0083 -1.11622
88 Oman -1.33728 -1.40809 -1.1488 -1.35187 -1.13284
89 Cote d'Ivoire -1.00629 -1.18414 -1.10706 -1.23779 -1.14784
90 Ethiopia -0.932435 -0.87046 -1.02267 -1.03374 -1.15615
91 Tanzania -1.23856 -1.30574 -1.23245 -1.25281 -1.27276
92 Zambia -0.792187 -0.842796 -1.29254 -1.19932 -1.27385
93 Angola -1.23318 -1.22352 -1.20874 -1.32727 -1.28119
94 Sudan -1.18166 -1.39571 -1.30781 -1.54086 -1.3197
95 Gabon -1.24293 -1.41464 -1.24468 -1.62498 -1.3714
96 Indonesia -1.10962 -1.0897 -1.26172 -1.35609 -1.4636
97 Nigeria -1.43376 -1.6612 -1.70208 -1.86444 -2.02801