The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
1 Germany 2.24741 2.29945 2.31199 2.1881 2.0945
2 Sweden 1.91456 2.03225 2.0072 1.97976 1.94479
3 Japan 1.93272 1.98772 2.06442 1.89414 1.88449
4 Austria 1.96936 1.94613 1.88468 1.90756 1.8608
5 United Kingdom 2.03752 2.03438 2.04552 1.93043 1.8346
6 Switzerland 2.01508 2.04004 1.98867 1.93517 1.82118
7 Italy 1.81948 1.8205 1.79484 1.73502 1.66015
8 France 1.69848 1.66878 1.61751 1.65195 1.58377
9 United States 1.69342 1.71798 1.67185 1.63622 1.52574
10 Belgium 1.48649 1.47614 1.44249 1.47628 1.49865
11 Finland 1.35226 1.37407 1.34622 1.41397 1.41914
12 Denmark 1.35966 1.37284 1.35135 1.29079 1.32153
13 Norway 1.24371 1.23394 1.38708 1.30666 1.22566
14 Hong Kong 1.22027 1.24999 1.37248 1.14592 1.15176
15 Netherlands 1.24771 1.24832 1.2507 1.1773 1.13294
16 Zimbabwe 1.1095 0.959187 0.972448 1.00227 1.08859
17 Ireland 1.00326 0.966161 1.01993 1.04279 1.07572
18 Poland 0.875648 0.844756 0.890208 0.879724 0.997645
19 Spain 0.916294 0.921629 0.903208 0.950058 0.9951
20 Hungary 1.01019 0.977467 0.962564 0.927532 0.966144
21 Israel 0.64909 0.692241 0.747705 0.77872 0.875202
22 Portugal 0.947728 0.897661 0.902619 0.82155 0.854045
23 South Korea 0.627842 0.626045 0.761627 0.821309 0.829413
24 Bulgaria 0.588835 0.589544 0.613131 0.770913 0.820792
25 Canada 0.709441 0.723165 0.627947 0.66737 0.78543
26 Lebanon 0.599343 0.631402 0.695391 0.761648 0.712371
27 Mexico 0.348713 0.319915 0.352259 0.583489 0.646014
28 Jordan 0.689381 0.319037 0.350396 0.359079 0.640662
29 Romania 0.697563 0.740619 0.774934 0.671174 0.621123
30 El Salvador 0.554931 0.678434 0.681508 0.659586 0.610358
31 Costa Rica 0.474371 0.577735 0.53157 0.619416 0.607385
32 China 0.525819 0.514375 0.543544 0.497583 0.484235
33 Greece 0.314837 0.221012 0.201106 0.32517 0.415036
34 Uruguay 0.298024 0.271904 0.322398 0.405485 0.408375
35 Argentina -0.117285 -0.021875 0.117281 0.269263 0.390731
36 Panama 0.606507 0.543671 0.467348 0.483249 0.388707
37 Mongolia 0.297181 0.300554
38 Singapore 0.010946 0.207166 0.286793 0.296666 0.29783
39 New Zealand 0.22548 0.353045 0.462662 0.405668 0.293033
40 Colombia -0.118563 -0.088109 0.106428 0.253689 0.267366
41 Guatemala 0.314459 0.240257 0.337624 0.261837 0.239749
42 India 0.151577 0.111218 0.092628 0.170085 0.235067
43 Egypt -0.026385 0.084044 0.118683 0.063234 0.077666
44 Nicaragua 0.158069 0.168931 0.028206 0.082136 0.05211
45 Chile 0.013151 0.065106 0.057265 -0.114033 0.011746
46 Jamaica -0.207051 -0.205072 0.028676 0.107055 -0.01524
47 Pakistan -0.247639 -0.317045 -0.280222 -0.101056 -0.025431
48 Tunisia -0.214765 -0.277761 -0.191241 -0.109595 -0.026107
49 Australia 0.057807 0.043605 0.01988 0.002005 -0.044957
50 Trinidad and Tobago 0.351749 0.44187 0.254467 0.171132 -0.091113
51 Vietnam -0.234389 -0.195863 -0.189671 -0.150127 -0.10675
52 Syria -0.289283 -0.387965 -0.35571 -0.202059 -0.12899
53 Albania 0.089795 0.09419 -0.064341 -0.170026 -0.138748
54 Philippines -0.447083 -0.55777 -0.600374 -0.481102 -0.189632
55 Brazil -0.614586 -0.546039 -0.372521 -0.341572 -0.21511
56 Dominican Republic -0.443618 -0.40791 -0.255854 -0.111751 -0.217707
57 Morocco -0.194403 -0.18728 -0.26061 -0.329085 -0.223595
58 Turkey -0.515846 -0.467437 -0.337298 -0.289211 -0.23484
59 South Africa -0.288454 -0.290437 -0.299252 -0.290143 -0.25239
60 Honduras -0.273195 -0.409435 -0.444479 -0.216776 -0.315171
61 Senegal -0.449499 -0.308306 -0.311544 -0.338371 -0.328214
62 Cambodia -1.07522 -1.10812 -1.02784 -0.62695 -0.342256
63 Paraguay -0.492994 -0.612634 -0.481644 -0.493307 -0.402084
64 Kuwait -0.707222 -0.530043 -0.580382 -0.671988 -0.478695
65 Thailand -0.852995 -0.778683 -0.636195 -0.512015 -0.51068
66 Bangladesh -0.583664 -0.380092 -0.233379 -0.539728
67 Kenya -0.289811 -0.374348 -0.385182 -0.511042 -0.542436
68 Togo -0.6516 -0.533978 -0.462118 -0.765912 -0.549275
69 Malaysia -0.882138 -0.719569 -0.86161 -0.583411 -0.574961
70 Peru -0.826122 -0.795581 -0.800638 -0.711308 -0.632461
71 Algeria -0.387895 -0.581162 -0.634155 -0.772504 -0.658009
72 Mauritania -0.632401 -0.934725 -0.905246 -0.929071 -0.661912
73 Laos -0.73136 -0.92082 -0.866594 -0.909832 -0.714096
74 Oman -1.35187 -1.13284 -0.852098 -0.379688 -0.814211
75 Mozambique -0.795592 -0.900928 -0.73104 -0.746801 -0.85923
76 Zambia -1.19932 -1.27385 -1.09525 -1.00321 -0.868636
77 Sri Lanka -1.0083 -1.11622 -0.898494 -0.983562 -0.887723
78 Cameroon -0.935888 -0.958583 -0.708526 -0.951974 -0.981177
79 Ethiopia -1.03374 -1.15615 -1.07269 -1.03366 -0.994609
80 Bolivia -0.780383 -0.795227 -0.980488 -1.04562 -0.996872
81 Ecuador -1.07145 -1.11334 -1.04445 -0.934708 -1.04695
82 Sudan -1.54086 -1.3197 -1.2759 -1.01438 -1.05126
83 Venezuela -0.88009 -0.572191 -0.720852 -1.2073 -1.10367
84 Burma -1.37593 -1.05842 -0.868736 -0.926276 -1.10767
85 Madagascar -0.962487 -0.889362 -0.937656 -1.04524 -1.1211
86 Qatar 0.046028 0.609986 -0.700533 -0.961946 -1.13544
87 United Arab Emirates -0.325083 -0.483392 -1.16526 -0.491762 -1.15238
88 Ghana -0.993839 -1.04168 -1.17829 -1.29589 -1.17729
89 Cote d'Ivoire -1.23779 -1.14784 -1.18693 -1.3391 -1.1907
90 Republic of the Congo -0.964024 -1.07979 -1.17314 -1.22077 -1.21109
91 Angola -1.32727 -1.28119 -1.15258 -1.14003 -1.24488
92 Tanzania -1.25281 -1.27276 -1.16077 -1.24789 -1.25273
93 Guinea -0.846298 -1.08984 -0.884032 -1.27342 -1.36993
94 Iran -0.805196 -0.832824 -1.17204 -1.38935 -1.42703
95 Indonesia -1.35609 -1.4636 -1.34541 -1.57939 -1.65005
96 Gabon -1.62498 -1.3714 -1.58036 -1.60746 -1.88408
97 Saudi Arabia -1.01507 -0.924268 -1.46699 -1.89302 -1.88804
98 Nigeria -1.86444 -2.02801 -2.01528 -2.06088 -2.09044