The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977
1 Germany 2.31199 2.1881 2.0945 1.88162 1.91189
2 Sweden 2.0072 1.97976 1.94479 1.78681 1.81863
3 Japan 2.06442 1.89414 1.88449 1.71844 1.79081
4 Austria 1.88468 1.90756 1.8608 1.70802 1.7341
5 Switzerland 1.98867 1.93517 1.82118 1.69141 1.73321
6 United Kingdom 2.04552 1.93043 1.8346 1.6602 1.72792
7 Italy 1.79484 1.73502 1.66015 1.55495 1.57614
8 France 1.61751 1.65195 1.58377 1.49599 1.54568
9 United States 1.67185 1.63622 1.52574 1.40271 1.48685
10 Belgium 1.44249 1.47628 1.49865 1.36239 1.34301
11 Finland 1.34622 1.41397 1.41914 1.27995 1.29729
12 Denmark 1.35135 1.29079 1.32153 1.2192 1.22964
13 Norway 1.38708 1.30666 1.22566 1.12291 1.20319
14 Jordan 0.350396 0.359079 0.640662 1.04364 1.14715
15 Netherlands 1.2507 1.1773 1.13294 1.01535 1.06845
16 Lebanon 0.695391 0.761648 0.712371 0.922862 0.978699
17 Ireland 1.01993 1.04279 1.07572 0.930576 0.950345
18 Kuwait -0.580382 -0.671988 -0.478695 0.997675 0.938192
19 Spain 0.903208 0.950058 0.9951 0.821651 0.913434
20 Hong Kong 1.37248 1.14592 1.15176 0.968926 0.889431
21 Israel 0.747705 0.77872 0.875202 0.815083 0.876125
22 Canada 0.627947 0.66737 0.78543 0.81458 0.869288
23 Poland 0.890208 0.879724 0.997645 0.868974 0.86358
24 Hungary 0.962564 0.927532 0.966144 0.806986 0.854007
25 United Arab Emirates -1.16526 -0.491762 -1.15238 1.02117 0.786587
26 Syria -0.35571 -0.202059 -0.12899 0.700835 0.769084
27 Portugal 0.902619 0.82155 0.854045 0.69349 0.740047
28 Mongolia 0.297181 0.300554 0.539567 0.712628
29 South Korea 0.761627 0.821309 0.829413 0.753741 0.682189
30 Bulgaria 0.613131 0.770913 0.820792 0.7584 0.66881
31 Mexico 0.352259 0.583489 0.646014 0.643311 0.662488
32 Romania 0.774934 0.671174 0.621123 0.605972 0.620529
33 Zimbabwe 0.972448 1.00227 1.08859 0.761066 0.510551
34 Greece 0.201106 0.32517 0.415036 0.555026 0.47587
35 Singapore 0.286793 0.296666 0.29783 0.318454 0.40171
36 Uruguay 0.322398 0.405485 0.408375 0.429916 0.348066
37 Oman -0.852098 -0.379688 -0.814211 1.0337 0.327238
38 Costa Rica 0.53157 0.619416 0.607385 0.383784 0.301146
39 India 0.092628 0.170085 0.235067 0.260826 0.285061
40 China 0.543544 0.497583 0.484235 0.341003 0.278706
41 El Salvador 0.681508 0.659586 0.610358 0.368276 0.274197
42 New Zealand 0.462662 0.405668 0.293033 0.190948 0.262797
43 Cambodia -1.02784 -0.62695 -0.342256 -0.150939 0.173955
44 Argentina 0.117281 0.269263 0.390731 0.184318 0.129156
45 Panama 0.467348 0.483249 0.388707 0.273613 0.118599
46 Pakistan -0.280222 -0.101056 -0.025431 0.031359 0.079415
47 Egypt 0.118683 0.063234 0.077666 0.061756 0.061075
48 Jamaica 0.028676 0.107055 -0.01524 0.082339 0.039221
49 Guatemala 0.337624 0.261837 0.239749 0.064876 0.019909
50 Colombia 0.106428 0.253689 0.267366 0.141144 -0.015421
51 Qatar -0.700533 -0.961946 -1.13544 0.343811 -0.027909
52 Turkey -0.337298 -0.289211 -0.23484 0.015191 -0.036495
53 Australia 0.01988 0.002005 -0.044957 -0.088588 -0.050256
54 South Africa -0.299252 -0.290143 -0.25239 -0.320777 -0.153402
55 Laos -0.866594 -0.909832 -0.714096 -0.68125 -0.15913
56 Morocco -0.26061 -0.329085 -0.223595 -0.229217 -0.171619
57 Vietnam -0.189671 -0.150127 -0.10675 -0.326853 -0.224908
58 Tunisia -0.191241 -0.109595 -0.026107 -0.171232 -0.242852
59 Chile 0.057265 -0.114033 0.011746 -0.254118 -0.253737
60 Nicaragua 0.028206 0.082136 0.05211 -0.199501 -0.255258
61 Brazil -0.372521 -0.341572 -0.21511 -0.308122 -0.259673
62 Albania -0.064341 -0.170026 -0.138748 -0.171997 -0.267863
63 Dominican Republic -0.255854 -0.111751 -0.217707 -0.26608 -0.269721
64 Malaysia -0.86161 -0.583411 -0.574961 -0.415963 -0.291443
65 Honduras -0.444479 -0.216776 -0.315171 -0.410047 -0.316132
66 Kenya -0.385182 -0.511042 -0.542436 -0.384282 -0.319238
67 Philippines -0.600374 -0.481102 -0.189632 -0.177066 -0.3233
68 Thailand -0.636195 -0.512015 -0.51068 -0.484416 -0.40357
69 Senegal -0.311544 -0.338371 -0.328214 -0.612047 -0.472473
70 Trinidad and Tobago 0.254467 0.171132 -0.091113 -0.254482 -0.503068
71 Peru -0.800638 -0.711308 -0.632461 -0.532239 -0.521048
72 Paraguay -0.481644 -0.493307 -0.402084 -0.656455 -0.531246
73 Bangladesh -0.380092 -0.233379 -0.539728 -0.915828 -0.750175
74 Mauritania -0.905246 -0.929071 -0.661912 -0.805415 -0.761595
75 Algeria -0.634155 -0.772504 -0.658009 -0.81583 -0.822023
76 Sri Lanka -0.898494 -0.983562 -0.887723 -1.05163 -0.851707
77 Bolivia -0.980488 -1.04562 -0.996872 -0.926734 -0.870114
78 Togo -0.462118 -0.765912 -0.549275 -0.861637 -0.911725
79 Zambia -1.09525 -1.00321 -0.868636 -0.911014 -0.937637
80 Mozambique -0.73104 -0.746801 -0.85923 -1.01832 -1.00105
81 Burma -0.868736 -0.926276 -1.10767 -1.00505 -1.04818
82 Ethiopia -1.07269 -1.03366 -0.994609 -1.02621 -1.05803
83 Cameroon -0.708526 -0.951974 -0.981177 -1.169 -1.13052
84 Tanzania -1.16077 -1.24789 -1.25273 -1.24371 -1.13742
85 Cote d'Ivoire -1.18693 -1.3391 -1.1907 -1.5193 -1.17047
86 Ecuador -1.04445 -0.934708 -1.04695 -1.16866 -1.18658
87 Venezuela -0.720852 -1.2073 -1.10367 -0.985057 -1.21212
88 Sudan -1.2759 -1.01438 -1.05126 -1.17056 -1.25543
89 Madagascar -0.937656 -1.04524 -1.1211 -1.26861 -1.26945
90 Iran -1.17204 -1.38935 -1.42703 -1.37322 -1.42882
91 Republic of the Congo -1.17314 -1.22077 -1.21109 -1.51863 -1.50926
92 Ghana -1.17829 -1.29589 -1.17729 -1.42182 -1.52408
93 Gabon -1.58036 -1.60746 -1.88408 -1.66631 -1.53803
94 Angola -1.15258 -1.14003 -1.24488 -1.37667 -1.54506
95 Indonesia -1.34541 -1.57939 -1.65005 -1.82354 -1.66825
96 Saudi Arabia -1.46699 -1.89302 -1.88804 -1.48968 -1.87989
97 Guinea -0.884032 -1.27342 -1.36993 -1.7674 -2.19914
98 Nigeria -2.01528 -2.06088 -2.09044 -2.47587 -2.21442