The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
1 Germany 1.88162 1.91189 1.98571 2.13579 2.0861
2 Switzerland 1.69141 1.73321 1.813 1.99453 2.00572
3 Sweden 1.78681 1.81863 1.91341 1.95309 1.92992
4 Japan 1.71844 1.79081 1.83684 1.94395 1.88833
5 Austria 1.70802 1.7341 1.81273 1.93101 1.88666
6 United Kingdom 1.6602 1.72792 1.79062 1.84999 1.85741
7 France 1.49599 1.54568 1.62775 1.68432 1.6675
8 Italy 1.55495 1.57614 1.6234 1.69198 1.64847
9 United States 1.40271 1.48685 1.44382 1.50259 1.5004
10 Belgium 1.36239 1.34301 1.39968 1.42368 1.4946
11 Finland 1.27995 1.29729 1.34838 1.35975 1.46544
12 Denmark 1.2192 1.22964 1.32044 1.34456 1.36878
13 Ireland 0.930576 0.950345 1.13131 1.1536 1.21233
14 Netherlands 1.01535 1.06845 1.07978 1.16236 1.14066
15 Spain 0.821651 0.913434 1.00921 1.05235 1.06151
16 Norway 1.12291 1.20319 1.13072 1.06658 1.02257
17 Poland 0.868974 0.86358 0.833613 0.885866 0.983217
18 Cambodia -0.150939 0.173955 0.418704 0.686277 0.953869
19 Hungary 0.806986 0.854007 0.911598 0.944537 0.927901
20 Jordan 1.04364 1.14715 1.10643 1.0003 0.90679
21 Hong Kong 0.968926 0.889431 0.911861 0.928507 0.899815
22 Canada 0.81458 0.869288 0.846039 0.833572 0.857068
23 South Korea 0.753741 0.682189 0.767752 0.819243 0.85489
24 Portugal 0.69349 0.740047 0.766385 0.862483 0.84277
25 Israel 0.815083 0.876125 0.856037 0.781789 0.841083
26 Bulgaria 0.7584 0.66881 0.665983 0.675666 0.633252
27 Romania 0.605972 0.620529 0.703638 0.696607 0.607707
28 Lebanon 0.922862 0.978699 0.932121 0.67831 0.581226
29 Mexico 0.643311 0.662488 0.600371 0.533398 0.448728
30 Albania -0.171997 -0.267863 0.027023 -0.074055 0.420676
31 Costa Rica 0.383784 0.301146 0.30829 0.354579 0.359232
32 Uruguay 0.429916 0.348066 0.276794 0.33441 0.34675
33 China 0.341003 0.278706 0.291819 0.299534 0.320765
34 Qatar 0.343811 -0.027909 -0.796915 0.112702 0.307791
35 New Zealand 0.190948 0.262797 0.290817 0.293272 0.287538
36 India 0.260826 0.285061 0.272973 0.25889 0.27281
37 Panama 0.273613 0.118599 0.190321 0.133036 0.225306
38 El Salvador 0.368276 0.274197 0.331769 0.286214 0.192411
39 Mongolia 0.539567 0.712628 0.6664 0.517489 0.186925
40 United Arab Emirates 1.02117 0.786587 0.216543 -0.105964 0.171413
41 Singapore 0.318454 0.40171 0.274431 0.169053 0.160756
42 Greece 0.555026 0.47587 0.447339 0.272871 0.141741
43 Kuwait 0.997675 0.938192 0.66765 0.034041 0.110441
44 Guatemala 0.064876 0.019909 0.029384 0.079735 0.103098
45 Brazil -0.308122 -0.259673 -0.181274 -0.106942 0.067672
46 Laos -0.68125 -0.15913 -0.116997 -0.110284 0.013824
47 Jamaica 0.082339 0.039221 0.111522 -0.108446 -0.078034
48 Tunisia -0.171232 -0.242852 -0.263188 -0.163192 -0.078853
49 South Africa -0.320777 -0.153402 -0.225034 -0.149801 -0.085272
50 Turkey 0.015191 -0.036495 -0.113783 -0.141234 -0.088335
51 Australia -0.088588 -0.050256 -0.038578 -0.044982 -0.094969
52 Argentina 0.184318 0.129156 0.100627 -0.030212 -0.100055
53 Nicaragua -0.199501 -0.255258 -0.164669 -0.105189 -0.110342
54 Pakistan 0.031359 0.079415 0.099332 0.031184 -0.115404
55 Oman 1.0337 0.327238 -0.509484 -0.612259 -0.124307
56 Philippines -0.177066 -0.3233 -0.145795 -0.212291 -0.140206
57 Peru -0.532239 -0.521048 -0.600074 -0.220861 -0.165561
58 Morocco -0.229217 -0.171619 -0.153656 -0.155585 -0.167354
59 Thailand -0.484416 -0.40357 -0.269411 -0.199437 -0.178685
60 Dominican Republic -0.26608 -0.269721 -0.055693 -0.15358 -0.198638
61 Colombia 0.141144 -0.015421 -0.191699 -0.15778 -0.220389
62 Chile -0.254118 -0.253737 -0.192636 -0.300832 -0.231075
63 Kenya -0.384282 -0.319238 -0.262464 -0.35219 -0.319034
64 Vietnam -0.326853 -0.224908 -0.203335 -0.438961 -0.322191
65 Malaysia -0.415963 -0.291443 -0.195103 -0.304213 -0.364096
66 Egypt 0.061756 0.061075 -0.00279 -0.154764 -0.377018
67 Syria 0.700835 0.769084 0.720633 0.165746 -0.402598
68 Bangladesh -0.915828 -0.750175 -0.546402 -0.581606 -0.473513
69 Senegal -0.612047 -0.472473 -0.564835 -0.521327 -0.502146
70 Zimbabwe 0.761066 0.510551 0.14211 0.352027 -0.514413
71 Honduras -0.410047 -0.316132 -0.398216 -0.579062 -0.525357
72 Mozambique -1.01832 -1.00105 -0.918985 -0.484657 -0.580247
73 Sri Lanka -1.05163 -0.851707 -0.807947 -0.61599 -0.585217
74 Ecuador -1.16866 -1.18658 -1.32066 -1.11174 -0.644096
75 Trinidad and Tobago -0.254482 -0.503068 -0.179923 -0.395649 -0.693578
76 Zambia -0.911014 -0.937637 -0.85791 -0.780084 -0.732815
77 Algeria -0.81583 -0.822023 -0.939733 -0.844654 -0.754751
78 Burma -1.00505 -1.04818 -0.882072 -0.830871 -0.807171
79 Tanzania -1.24371 -1.13742 -1.22402 -1.11669 -0.88241
80 Bolivia -0.926734 -0.870114 -0.851629 -1.14398 -0.904911
81 Paraguay -0.656455 -0.531246 -0.67204 -0.767292 -0.914223
82 Ghana -1.42182 -1.52408 -1.19743 -1.19881 -1.07721
83 Cote d'Ivoire -1.5193 -1.17047 -1.18251 -1.04431 -1.08692
84 Madagascar -1.26861 -1.26945 -1.28706 -1.21443 -1.10889
85 Ethiopia -1.02621 -1.05803 -1.07115 -1.19928 -1.17153
86 Republic of the Congo -1.51863 -1.50926 -1.24883 -1.13528 -1.19202
87 Mauritania -0.805415 -0.761595 -1.10609 -1.39294 -1.24662
88 Sudan -1.17056 -1.25543 -1.29886 -1.19936 -1.25879
89 Togo -0.861637 -0.911725 -1.19283 -1.0105 -1.31044
90 Cameroon -1.169 -1.13052 -1.25489 -1.16546 -1.34147
91 Venezuela -0.985057 -1.21212 -1.08701 -1.04601 -1.36645
92 Gabon -1.66631 -1.53803 -1.31778 -1.39642 -1.37809
93 Iran -1.37322 -1.42882 -1.23625 -1.31155 -1.38935
94 Angola -1.37667 -1.54506 -1.43599 -1.4835 -1.43557
95 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.49539
96 Indonesia -1.82354 -1.66825 -1.36404 -1.58526 -1.66024
97 Guinea -1.7674 -2.19914 -1.96201 -2.18704 -1.76414
98 Saudi Arabia -1.48968 -1.87989 -2.29486 -1.71692 -2.1413
99 Nigeria -2.47587 -2.21442 -2.31682 -2.2981 -2.36218