The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
1 Germany 1.98571 2.13579 2.0861 2.01825 1.98445
2 Sweden 1.91341 1.95309 1.92992 1.93062 1.89183
3 United Kingdom 1.79062 1.84999 1.85741 1.8527 1.82493
4 Japan 1.83684 1.94395 1.88833 1.83755 1.81597
5 Switzerland 1.813 1.99453 2.00572 1.92464 1.79668
6 Austria 1.81273 1.93101 1.88666 1.84022 1.79374
7 France 1.62775 1.68432 1.6675 1.61752 1.64914
8 Italy 1.6234 1.69198 1.64847 1.62263 1.64022
9 United States 1.44382 1.50259 1.5004 1.51882 1.46216
10 Finland 1.34838 1.35975 1.46544 1.36337 1.43566
11 Belgium 1.39968 1.42368 1.4946 1.49442 1.43398
12 Denmark 1.32044 1.34456 1.36878 1.35121 1.36344
13 Ireland 1.13131 1.1536 1.21233 1.27098 1.23034
14 Netherlands 1.07978 1.16236 1.14066 1.15826 1.11056
15 Spain 1.00921 1.05235 1.06151 1.04731 1.08526
16 Israel 0.856037 0.781789 0.841083 1.07216 1.08025
17 Poland 0.833613 0.885866 0.983217 1.02368 1.01759
18 Norway 1.13072 1.06658 1.02257 0.966306 0.999488
19 Cambodia 0.418704 0.686277 0.953869 1.1079 0.967635
20 Hungary 0.911598 0.944537 0.927901 0.950599 0.961064
21 Portugal 0.766385 0.862483 0.84277 0.841855 0.910184
22 Canada 0.846039 0.833572 0.857068 0.94163 0.905164
23 South Korea 0.767752 0.819243 0.85489 0.902423 0.885554
24 Hong Kong 0.911861 0.928507 0.899815 0.830525 0.837076
25 Jordan 1.10643 1.0003 0.90679 0.758856 0.820758
26 Romania 0.703638 0.696607 0.607707 0.648055 0.722751
27 Bulgaria 0.665983 0.675666 0.633252 0.681308 0.708309
28 Lebanon 0.932121 0.67831 0.581226 0.587277 0.666476
29 New Zealand 0.290817 0.293272 0.287538 0.417413 0.411588
30 Panama 0.190321 0.133036 0.225306 0.37013 0.390468
31 Mexico 0.600371 0.533398 0.448728 0.483624 0.37141
32 El Salvador 0.331769 0.286214 0.192411 0.293248 0.366672
33 Greece 0.447339 0.272871 0.141741 0.317374 0.354312
34 Albania 0.027023 -0.074055 0.420676 0.242285 0.347362
35 Uruguay 0.276794 0.33441 0.34675 0.308764 0.336185
36 China 0.291819 0.299534 0.320765 0.320562 0.313648
37 Brazil -0.181274 -0.106942 0.067672 0.117213 0.286643
38 Singapore 0.274431 0.169053 0.160756 0.216724 0.277628
39 Turkey -0.113783 -0.141234 -0.088335 0.064652 0.267097
40 India 0.272973 0.25889 0.27281 0.282423 0.265235
41 Guatemala 0.029384 0.079735 0.103098 0.171701 0.242111
42 Costa Rica 0.30829 0.354579 0.359232 0.284733 0.214813
43 Colombia -0.191699 -0.15778 -0.220389 -0.021815 0.198478
44 Kuwait 0.66765 0.034041 0.110441 0.150772 0.191197
45 Tunisia -0.263188 -0.163192 -0.078853 -0.044769 0.097075
46 Australia -0.038578 -0.044982 -0.094969 -0.147273 -0.007137
47 Laos -0.116997 -0.110284 0.013824 0.088764 -0.015012
48 Argentina 0.100627 -0.030212 -0.100055 -0.088912 -0.04017
49 Jamaica 0.111522 -0.108446 -0.078034 -0.013388 -0.066094
50 Pakistan 0.099332 0.031184 -0.115404 -0.13179 -0.073382
51 South Africa -0.225034 -0.149801 -0.085272 -0.082639 -0.084774
52 Syria 0.720633 0.165746 -0.402598 -0.359806 -0.1311
53 Morocco -0.153656 -0.155585 -0.167354 -0.167639 -0.136266
54 Philippines -0.145795 -0.212291 -0.140206 -0.153217 -0.13915
55 Mongolia 0.6664 0.517489 0.186925 0.175424 -0.142225
56 Senegal -0.564835 -0.521327 -0.502146 -0.22909 -0.164245
57 Thailand -0.269411 -0.199437 -0.178685 -0.152445 -0.174918
58 Nicaragua -0.164669 -0.105189 -0.110342 -0.232164 -0.194655
59 Trinidad and Tobago -0.179923 -0.395649 -0.693578 -0.282267 -0.195771
60 Chile -0.192636 -0.300832 -0.231075 -0.201121 -0.206138
61 Dominican Republic -0.055693 -0.15358 -0.198638 -0.241778 -0.242779
62 Qatar -0.796915 0.112702 0.307791 -0.195983 -0.301367
63 Malaysia -0.195103 -0.304213 -0.364096 -0.39127 -0.301706
64 Peru -0.600074 -0.220861 -0.165561 -0.285008 -0.38563
65 Zimbabwe 0.14211 0.352027 -0.514413 -0.60849 -0.395937
66 Honduras -0.398216 -0.579062 -0.525357 -0.524518 -0.423259
67 Mozambique -0.918985 -0.484657 -0.580247 -0.623075 -0.47178
68 United Arab Emirates 0.216543 -0.105964 0.171413 -0.075462 -0.47584
69 Kenya -0.262464 -0.35219 -0.319034 -0.389878 -0.490322
70 Egypt -0.00279 -0.154764 -0.377018 -0.558607 -0.537723
71 Vietnam -0.203335 -0.438961 -0.322191 -0.349642 -0.611483
72 Bangladesh -0.546402 -0.581606 -0.473513 -0.58621 -0.629682
73 Sri Lanka -0.807947 -0.61599 -0.585217 -0.603583 -0.640165
74 Ecuador -1.32066 -1.11174 -0.644096 -0.780416 -0.691914
75 Burma -0.882072 -0.830871 -0.807171 -0.667566 -0.694097
76 Zambia -0.85791 -0.780084 -0.732815 -0.51962 -0.704497
77 Ethiopia -1.07115 -1.19928 -1.17153 -1.05514 -0.7192
78 Oman -0.509484 -0.612259 -0.124307 -0.036912 -0.719467
79 Tanzania -1.22402 -1.11669 -0.88241 -0.881603 -0.793757
80 Paraguay -0.67204 -0.767292 -0.914223 -0.900972 -0.857857
81 Bolivia -0.851629 -1.14398 -0.904911 -1.03484 -0.895974
82 Mauritania -1.10609 -1.39294 -1.24662 -1.25527 -0.934538
83 Venezuela -1.08701 -1.04601 -1.36645 -1.35676 -1.04203
84 Sudan -1.29886 -1.19936 -1.25879 -1.14672 -1.06056
85 Algeria -0.939733 -0.844654 -0.754751 -1.0883 -1.11657
86 Cote d'Ivoire -1.18251 -1.04431 -1.08692 -1.02644 -1.16171
87 Iran -1.23625 -1.31155 -1.38935 -1.11731 -1.19522
88 Madagascar -1.28706 -1.21443 -1.10889 -0.979658 -1.25712
89 Cameroon -1.25489 -1.16546 -1.34147 -1.50593 -1.30103
90 Ghana -1.19743 -1.19881 -1.07721 -1.16804 -1.40758
91 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.49539 -1.57941 -1.49485
92 Gabon -1.31778 -1.39642 -1.37809 -1.48457 -1.5229
93 Togo -1.19283 -1.0105 -1.31044 -1.26752 -1.57902
94 Indonesia -1.36404 -1.58526 -1.66024 -1.64905 -1.59288
95 Republic of the Congo -1.24883 -1.13528 -1.19202 -1.66323 -1.67642
96 Guinea -1.96201 -2.18704 -1.76414 -1.69511 -1.74614
97 Angola -1.43599 -1.4835 -1.43557 -1.70915 -1.76865
98 Nigeria -2.31682 -2.2981 -2.36218 -1.97928 -2.14511
99 Saudi Arabia -2.29486 -1.71692 -2.1413 -2.17624 -2.17477