The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
1 Japan 1.83755 1.81597 1.85998 2.15818 2.2608
2 Germany 2.01825 1.98445 1.98972 2.04753 2.13019
3 Switzerland 1.92464 1.79668 1.83181 1.97263 2.0112
4 Sweden 1.93062 1.89183 1.88134 1.91398 2.0021
5 United Kingdom 1.8527 1.82493 1.81516 1.87932 1.91522
6 Austria 1.84022 1.79374 1.79615 1.77997 1.88765
7 Italy 1.62263 1.64022 1.65406 1.67749 1.78471
8 France 1.61752 1.64914 1.64592 1.65194 1.75725
9 United States 1.51882 1.46216 1.45447 1.60668 1.65658
10 Finland 1.36337 1.43566 1.47076 1.44496 1.58759
11 Denmark 1.35121 1.36344 1.37149 1.39044 1.50081
12 Belgium 1.49442 1.43398 1.39186 1.33047 1.39638
13 Ireland 1.27098 1.23034 1.19683 1.30511 1.34516
14 Israel 1.07216 1.08025 1.13583 1.16666 1.24422
15 Spain 1.04731 1.08526 1.12307 1.12951 1.22884
16 Netherlands 1.15826 1.11056 1.0928 1.10124 1.22685
17 Hong Kong 0.830525 0.837076 0.922926 1.0832 0.99998
18 South Korea 0.902423 0.885554 0.870192 0.925091 0.938733
19 Norway 0.966306 0.999488 0.91962 0.855352 0.876663
20 Portugal 0.841855 0.910184 0.894749 0.786569 0.850207
21 Hungary 0.950599 0.961064 0.822882 0.755505 0.782787
22 Jordan 0.758856 0.820758 0.797023 0.838695 0.768842
23 Romania 0.648055 0.722751 0.69736 0.696714 0.764502
24 Canada 0.94163 0.905164 0.995635 0.767403 0.714533
25 Poland 1.02368 1.01759 0.935998 0.70727 0.669572
26 Bulgaria 0.681308 0.708309 0.835249 0.674233 0.620417
27 Cambodia 1.1079 0.967635 0.93646 0.618817 0.565503
28 Singapore 0.216724 0.277628 0.345051 0.636899 0.516443
29 New Zealand 0.417413 0.411588 0.39262 0.488338 0.492142
30 Lebanon 0.587277 0.666476 0.600643 0.593993 0.47897
31 Uruguay 0.308764 0.336185 0.288617 0.349433 0.435058
32 Mexico 0.483624 0.37141 0.350078 0.392398 0.41919
33 Qatar -0.195983 -0.301367 -0.091036 0.05032 0.370036
34 Greece 0.317374 0.354312 0.415651 0.382953 0.315273
35 Brazil 0.117213 0.286643 0.196999 0.375735 0.267288
36 Yemen 0.318063 0.251636
37 China 0.320562 0.313648 0.282005 0.27951 0.23883
38 India 0.282423 0.265235 0.009795 0.231607 0.209181
39 Turkey 0.064652 0.267097 0.422683 0.18852 0.14437
40 Malaysia -0.39127 -0.301706 -0.158291 0.22436 0.135335
41 Panama 0.37013 0.390468 0.315114 0.489499 0.102947
42 Tunisia -0.044769 0.097075 0.092105 0.071816 0.076952
43 Colombia -0.021815 0.198478 0.198326 0.256464 0.059858
44 Argentina -0.088912 -0.04017 0.100525 0.089542 0.02977
45 Australia -0.147273 -0.007137 -0.10869 -0.097552 0.024368
46 Jamaica -0.013388 -0.066094 -0.132885 -0.006167 0.005884
47 Laos 0.088764 -0.015012 -0.501314 -0.295409 -0.041721
48 Costa Rica 0.284733 0.214813 0.151419 0.122502 -0.05328
49 Thailand -0.152445 -0.174918 -0.322116 -0.021323 -0.053782
50 Oman -0.036912 -0.719467 0.78725 0.573659 -0.116269
51 Morocco -0.167639 -0.136266 -0.156858 -0.139479 -0.165684
52 Dominican Republic -0.241778 -0.242779 -0.179084 -0.332858 -0.178757
53 South Africa -0.082639 -0.084774 -0.113556 -0.195382 -0.188012
54 Philippines -0.153217 -0.13915 -0.202809 -0.149925 -0.214845
55 Pakistan -0.13179 -0.073382 -0.159002 -0.10831 -0.215134
56 Trinidad and Tobago -0.282267 -0.195771 -0.113493 -0.194203 -0.226116
57 Albania 0.242285 0.347362 0.203431 -0.040355 -0.226584
58 Chile -0.201121 -0.206138 -0.170715 -0.322281 -0.240817
59 Mozambique -0.623075 -0.47178 -0.42297 -0.411569 -0.315261
60 Mongolia 0.175424 -0.142225 -0.148033 -0.268388 -0.318123
61 Guatemala 0.171701 0.242111 0.186049 0.072258 -0.324174
62 Venezuela -1.35676 -1.04203 -0.87396 -0.671298 -0.348603
63 Syria -0.359806 -0.1311 -0.30833 -0.229593 -0.357534
64 Peru -0.285008 -0.38563 -0.40929 -0.420794 -0.388779
65 United Arab Emirates -0.075462 -0.47584 -0.706481 -0.476698 -0.392549
66 Honduras -0.524518 -0.423259 -0.626635 -0.608498 -0.409386
67 Egypt -0.558607 -0.537723 -0.404609 -0.492947 -0.458009
68 Senegal -0.22909 -0.164245 -0.158381 -0.622272 -0.521592
69 Sri Lanka -0.603583 -0.640165 -0.670908 -0.527826 -0.558963
70 El Salvador 0.293248 0.366672 0.345506 0.148986 -0.559493
71 Zambia -0.51962 -0.704497 -0.759663 -0.838919 -0.609474
72 Kuwait 0.150772 0.191197 0.16749 -0.216007 -0.617154
73 Zimbabwe -0.60849 -0.395937 -0.738731 -0.751496 -0.69842
74 Burma -0.667566 -0.694097 -0.766736 -0.826776 -0.715804
75 Vietnam -0.349642 -0.611483 -0.742823 -0.783679 -0.726897
76 Bangladesh -0.58621 -0.629682 -0.727512 -0.681064 -0.752768
77 Ethiopia -1.05514 -0.7192 -0.758394 -0.70973 -0.775537
78 Paraguay -0.900972 -0.857857 -0.69011 -0.86529 -0.795192
79 Sudan -1.14672 -1.06056 -1.08322 -1.11237 -0.836808
80 Bolivia -1.03484 -0.895974 -0.819953 -1.11108 -0.842486
81 Kenya -0.389878 -0.490322 -0.897006 -0.88951 -0.852445
82 Tanzania -0.881603 -0.793757 -1.14815 -1.05332 -0.890427
83 Cote d'Ivoire -1.02644 -1.16171 -0.930862 -1.03352 -0.966269
84 Ghana -1.16804 -1.40758 -1.09926 -1.22104 -0.999115
85 Mauritania -1.25527 -0.934538 -1.38224 -1.37713 -1.04673
86 Nicaragua -0.232164 -0.194655 -0.193166 -0.632906 -1.08428
87 Iran -1.11731 -1.19522 -1.27293 -1.12454 -1.09122
88 Algeria -1.0883 -1.11657 -1.18598 -1.18261 -1.10051
89 Ecuador -0.780416 -0.691914 -0.878952 -0.897574 -1.10442
90 Gabon -1.48457 -1.5229 -1.56763 -1.49385 -1.1978
91 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.57941 -1.49485 -1.5312 -1.34137 -1.24149
92 Madagascar -0.979658 -1.25712 -1.36143 -1.27543 -1.24666
93 Saudi Arabia -2.17624 -2.17477 -0.392052 -0.746958 -1.2505
94 Indonesia -1.64905 -1.59288 -1.40417 -1.30602 -1.27708
95 Republic of the Congo -1.66323 -1.67642 -1.69718 -1.68953 -1.57239
96 Togo -1.26752 -1.57902 -1.63595 -1.50714 -1.58361
97 Guinea -1.69511 -1.74614 -2.18468 -2.05419 -1.72045
98 Cameroon -1.50593 -1.30103 -1.15604 -1.20592 -1.73297
99 Angola -1.70915 -1.76865 -2.01443 -1.94971 -1.78521
100 Nigeria -1.97928 -2.14511 -2.03079 -2.08999 -2.07325