The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Download    Download All Years

Showing

Year Range

Country 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
1 Japan 2.32645 2.39976 2.36731 2.38974 2.39134
2 Switzerland 2.04334 2.1349 2.08125 2.10865 2.20354
3 Germany 2.13913 2.16696 2.17723 2.19761 2.19821
4 Sweden 2.02929 2.06501 2.08118 2.1338 2.16649
5 Austria 1.81925 1.89238 1.86741 1.92154 1.94269
6 United Kingdom 1.86948 1.84502 1.8197 1.85354 1.8885
7 Finland 1.57979 1.69034 1.65903 1.7338 1.8112
8 Italy 1.71372 1.73112 1.70263 1.6687 1.71993
9 Denmark 1.48869 1.50483 1.56451 1.62226 1.6333
10 France 1.71191 1.69556 1.62 1.64251 1.58344
11 United States 1.68473 1.62452 1.52115 1.53479 1.50659
12 Belgium 1.45513 1.47377 1.50163 1.48931 1.45983
13 Ireland 1.34901 1.34749 1.44454 1.47318 1.4374
14 Netherlands 1.25089 1.23651 1.25419 1.256 1.20143
15 Spain 1.11757 1.14212 1.14524 1.19786 1.19007
16 Israel 1.18827 1.17349 1.09227 1.17841 1.15976
17 Norway 0.866243 0.955728 1.01949 1.03702 1.03133
18 South Korea 0.903033 0.919086 0.946263 0.834166 0.898145
19 Hong Kong 0.950709 0.942748 0.949503 0.898704 0.882933
20 Hungary 0.690656 0.739834 0.847892 0.833217 0.808804
21 Romania 0.780271 0.758278 0.804159 0.806016 0.798893
22 Mexico 0.465516 0.649492 0.720238 0.71601 0.766842
23 Singapore 0.703919 0.623209 0.671827 0.648095 0.722376
24 Poland 0.707914 0.803996 0.80849 0.791207 0.70377
25 Canada 0.702436 0.712579 0.689466 0.774507 0.703285
26 Portugal 0.759677 0.725108 0.75562 0.670288 0.651649
27 Bulgaria 0.561423 0.579827 0.558906 0.569171 0.645641
28 Brazil 0.345727 0.369739 0.33526 0.339519 0.418308
29 Jordan 0.518866 0.461162 0.519375 0.571932 0.329789
30 El Salvador 0.294898 0.472801 0.319616 0.296832 0.322887
31 New Zealand 0.529792 0.417875 0.34395 0.355489 0.318537
32 China 0.147123 0.134055 0.246918 0.234761 0.254205
33 Panama 0.097218 -0.148231 -0.097236 0.01048 0.231381
34 India 0.200489 0.199895 0.126991 0.134137 0.229328
35 Lebanon 0.557421 0.460734 0.402064 0.259094 0.222896
36 Greece 0.279589 0.289679 0.219048 0.095416 0.152017
37 Trinidad and Tobago 0.094595 -0.077639 -0.024489 0.21133 0.144432
38 Turkey 0.118645 0.219343 0.270537 0.158364 0.143942
39 Uruguay 0.398713 0.404771 0.343907 0.208406 0.133127
40 Qatar 0.507998 0.329535 0.292962 0.271141 0.101576
41 Malaysia 0.023944 -0.013715 -0.05365 -0.043857 0.077114
42 Madagascar -1.39296 -1.29 -1.29093 -1.29473 0.075262
43 Argentina 0.02127 0.064141 0.042609 0.094958 0.064197
44 Thailand -0.196221 -0.165517 -0.059027 -0.058231 0.028856
45 Saudi Arabia -0.779577 -0.22444 -0.209904 -0.027672 0.010843
46 Oman -0.861732 -0.812367 -0.064174 0.288311 -0.011874
47 Tunisia 0.064443 0.128234 0.130735 -0.025771 -0.030626
48 Costa Rica -0.158359 -0.123305 -0.00306 -0.003063 -0.07688
49 Philippines -0.33671 -0.327704 -0.332234 -0.211546 -0.139151
50 Guatemala -0.110733 -0.124289 -0.114968 -0.220272 -0.140966
51 Kuwait 0.10631 -0.187616 0.32521 0.220934 -0.142634
52 Australia -0.079455 -0.085689 -0.108906 -0.067428 -0.168113
53 Colombia -0.04428 -0.190655 -0.178329 -0.108131 -0.183715
54 Albania -0.336359 -0.229183 -0.281952 -0.264478 -0.197794
55 Cambodia 0.645039 0.322833 0.411623 -0.085926 -0.221593
56 United Arab Emirates -0.085901 -0.11452 -0.011708 0.062544 -0.222188
57 Jamaica -0.059726 -0.340469 -0.237738 -0.257262 -0.23057
58 South Africa -0.100059 -0.254265 -0.307473 -0.348081 -0.24657
59 Venezuela -0.224144 -0.142738 -0.310206 -0.20186 -0.249176
60 Mozambique -0.19087 -0.051954 -0.345335 -0.374334 -0.280503
61 Dominican Republic -0.151004 -0.110589 -0.130617 -0.248173 -0.298144
62 Peru -0.293198 -0.380444 -0.24436 -0.270606 -0.3134
63 Morocco -0.197346 -0.334159 -0.299073 -0.418674 -0.384117
64 Laos -0.29169 -0.400541 -0.588246 -0.278497 -0.438861
65 Nicaragua -0.512901 -0.238517 -0.440161 -0.480994 -0.441603
66 Chile -0.27313 -0.470722 -0.565224 -0.499843 -0.452327
67 Sri Lanka -0.449493 -0.630882 -0.49977 -0.620797 -0.482596
68 Mongolia -0.48517 -0.345683 -0.186588 -0.348805 -0.502122
69 Honduras -0.678372 -0.616688 -0.669397 -0.681549 -0.518993
70 Egypt -0.370879 -0.47398 -0.399866 -0.451679 -0.535157
71 Syria -0.282584 -0.41874 -0.424702 -0.508874 -0.540398
72 Pakistan -0.28839 -0.383374 -0.490167 -0.638552 -0.547604
73 Indonesia -1.19011 -1.11041 -0.8393 -0.703247 -0.592783
74 Zimbabwe -0.662716 -0.638385 -0.740906 -0.69104 -0.604088
75 Algeria -1.22432 -0.787639 -0.292231 -0.257457 -0.649656
76 Zambia -0.517998 -0.416354 -0.456881 -0.67636 -0.700076
77 Bangladesh -0.649575 -0.561619 -0.486923 -0.743294 -0.761861
78 Senegal -0.609679 -0.710488 -0.726655 -0.637763 -0.788705
79 Bolivia -0.942779 -0.895863 -0.804475 -0.956995 -0.864784
80 Vietnam -0.771785 -0.984498 -1.02124 -1.02634 -0.921859
81 Ethiopia -0.969597 -0.812948 -0.964332 -0.971688 -0.932032
82 Ecuador -1.2186 -1.20318 -1.00988 -0.967277 -0.93695
83 Paraguay -0.857056 -0.798989 -0.889779 -0.88285 -0.957365
84 Sudan -1.08179 -0.933388 -1.12616 -1.18061 -0.97173
85 Kenya -0.921978 -0.858609 -0.973226 -1.03404 -0.977025
86 Burma -0.811849 -0.984295 -1.13781 -1.09078 -1.05308
87 Yemen 0.062197 0.141871 -0.908052 -0.978779 -1.07125
88 Tanzania -0.922606 -1.01029 -1.21869 -1.15103 -1.09958
89 Ghana -0.99126 -1.16508 -1.16574 -1.13832 -1.10949
90 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.30384 -1.45864 -1.24313 -1.20444 -1.14496
91 Iran -1.23982 -1.33492 -1.19445 -1.21948 -1.28483
92 Togo -1.37642 -1.40066 -1.47951 -1.42253 -1.30555
93 Cote d'Ivoire -1.40121 -1.51558 -1.37116 -1.2969 -1.34105
94 Gabon -1.39269 -1.51237 -1.49476 -1.22518 -1.34855
95 Mauritania -0.939791 -0.993936 -1.29351 -1.30447 -1.46739
96 Republic of the Congo -1.59555 -1.56447 -1.35371 -1.48802 -1.50959
97 Guinea -1.46967 -1.82425 -1.72938 -1.78419 -1.51676
98 Angola -1.822 -1.26181 -1.6952 -1.27093 -1.67635
99 Cameroon -1.74781 -1.76979 -1.77215 -1.72539 -1.76896
100 Nigeria -2.00898 -1.73325 -1.64319 -1.72468 -2.01211