The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
1 Japan 2.36731 2.38974 2.39134 2.44302 2.49215
2 Switzerland 2.08125 2.10865 2.20354 2.25586 2.32899
3 Germany 2.17723 2.19761 2.19821 2.22515 2.32404
4 Sweden 2.08118 2.1338 2.16649 2.18277 2.25942
5 Austria 1.86741 1.92154 1.94269 1.95901 2.00948
6 United Kingdom 1.8197 1.85354 1.8885 1.92482 1.94726
7 Finland 1.65903 1.7338 1.8112 1.81157 1.8564
8 Italy 1.70263 1.6687 1.71993 1.71832 1.80255
9 Denmark 1.56451 1.62226 1.6333 1.69053 1.76411
10 France 1.62 1.64251 1.58344 1.62708 1.71048
11 United States 1.52115 1.53479 1.50659 1.62518 1.69659
12 Belgium 1.50163 1.48931 1.45983 1.43235 1.50294
13 Slovenia 1.43562
14 Ireland 1.44454 1.47318 1.4374 1.4218 1.41595
15 Netherlands 1.25419 1.256 1.20143 1.26567 1.35762
16 Spain 1.14524 1.19786 1.19007 1.14192 1.21133
17 Israel 1.09227 1.17841 1.15976 1.15167 1.08292
18 Croatia 1.00807
19 South Korea 0.946263 0.834166 0.898145 0.876456 0.941965
20 Singapore 0.671827 0.648095 0.722376 0.761109 0.941948
21 Hong Kong 0.949503 0.898704 0.882933 0.883499 0.909419
22 Norway 1.01949 1.03702 1.03133 0.856934 0.886433
23 Hungary 0.847892 0.833217 0.808804 0.805335 0.859383
24 Mexico 0.720238 0.71601 0.766842 0.684291 0.805366
25 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.765632
26 Portugal 0.75562 0.670288 0.651649 0.657358 0.6708
27 Romania 0.804159 0.806016 0.798893 0.693089 0.607645
28 Canada 0.689466 0.774507 0.703285 0.615339 0.580017
29 Moldova 0.546565
30 Poland 0.80849 0.791207 0.70377 0.666141 0.542584
31 Brazil 0.33526 0.339519 0.418308 0.417815 0.503414
32 Bulgaria 0.558906 0.569171 0.645641 0.568584 0.429701
33 El Salvador 0.319616 0.296832 0.322887 0.278094 0.400187
34 Belarus 0.33228
35 Panama -0.097236 0.01048 0.231381 0.169473 0.329985
36 New Zealand 0.34395 0.355489 0.318537 0.386536 0.285451
37 China 0.246918 0.234761 0.254205 0.284872 0.269057
38 Malaysia -0.05365 -0.043857 0.077114 0.1658 0.252923
39 India 0.126991 0.134137 0.229328 0.214645 0.189609
40 Thailand -0.059027 -0.058231 0.028856 0.059329 0.181246
41 Turkey 0.270537 0.158364 0.143942 0.150355 0.175993
42 Estonia 0.154759
43 Trinidad and Tobago -0.024489 0.21133 0.144432 0.23397 0.152904
44 Lithuania 0.117757
45 Lebanon 0.402064 0.259094 0.222896 0.114161 0.110669
46 Greece 0.219048 0.095416 0.152017 0.143166 0.081695
47 Ukraine 0.056669
48 Uruguay 0.343907 0.208406 0.133127 0.065365 0.036769
49 Tunisia 0.130735 -0.025771 -0.030626 -0.114127 0.028
50 Philippines -0.332234 -0.211546 -0.139151 -0.042884 0.002339
51 Costa Rica -0.00306 -0.003063 -0.07688 -0.013234 -0.004627
52 Jordan 0.519375 0.571932 0.329789 0.325138 -0.017063
53 South Africa -0.307473 -0.348081 -0.24657 -0.168412 -0.025986
54 Colombia -0.178329 -0.108131 -0.183715 -0.086006 -0.040668
55 Argentina 0.042609 0.094958 0.064197 0.092349 -0.063648
56 Mozambique -0.345335 -0.374334 -0.280503 -0.202467 -0.064139
57 Venezuela -0.310206 -0.20186 -0.249176 0.046246 -0.083257
58 Latvia -0.092093
59 Guatemala -0.114968 -0.220272 -0.140966 -0.124758 -0.099741
60 Russia -0.09975
61 Madagascar -1.29093 -1.29473 0.075262 0.013554 -0.151469
62 Australia -0.108906 -0.067428 -0.168113 -0.165157 -0.190559
63 Saudi Arabia -0.209904 -0.027672 0.010843 0.152447 -0.207551
64 Georgia -0.21613
65 Albania -0.281952 -0.264478 -0.197794 -0.210994 -0.242111
66 Dominican Republic -0.130617 -0.248173 -0.298144 -0.314759 -0.270596
67 Jamaica -0.237738 -0.257262 -0.23057 -0.3999 -0.285032
68 Sri Lanka -0.49977 -0.620797 -0.482596 -0.446405 -0.319451
69 Peru -0.24436 -0.270606 -0.3134 -0.206643 -0.322969
70 Egypt -0.399866 -0.451679 -0.535157 -0.439201 -0.324477
71 Uzbekistan -0.349566
72 Morocco -0.299073 -0.418674 -0.384117 -0.367125 -0.359833
73 Honduras -0.669397 -0.681549 -0.518993 -0.42832 -0.369167
74 Mongolia -0.186588 -0.348805 -0.502122 -0.3254 -0.374954
75 Azerbaijan -0.392366
76 Chile -0.565224 -0.499843 -0.452327 -0.336225 -0.397569
77 Nicaragua -0.440161 -0.480994 -0.441603 -0.601218 -0.413659
78 United Arab Emirates -0.011708 0.062544 -0.222188 -0.307082 -0.419576
79 Kazakhstan -0.420723
80 Zimbabwe -0.740906 -0.69104 -0.604088 -0.573003 -0.439256
81 Qatar 0.292962 0.271141 0.101576 -0.28138 -0.455776
82 Indonesia -0.8393 -0.703247 -0.592783 -0.40801 -0.490949
83 Turkmenistan -0.53812
84 Kuwait 0.32521 0.220934 -0.142634 -0.676866 -0.586543
85 Pakistan -0.490167 -0.638552 -0.547604 -0.56875 -0.608171
86 Bangladesh -0.486923 -0.743294 -0.761861 -0.737013 -0.659387
87 Oman -0.064174 0.288311 -0.011874 -0.263525 -0.661055
88 Syria -0.424702 -0.508874 -0.540398 -0.474933 -0.733972
89 Yemen -0.908052 -0.978779 -1.07125 -0.842516 -0.768928
90 Algeria -0.292231 -0.257457 -0.649656 -0.645687 -0.798032
91 Cambodia 0.411623 -0.085926 -0.221593 -0.478344 -0.845222
92 Togo -1.47951 -1.42253 -1.30555 -0.74779 -0.852755
93 Laos -0.588246 -0.278497 -0.438861 -0.62024 -0.864734
94 Senegal -0.726655 -0.637763 -0.788705 -0.712496 -0.880943
95 Bolivia -0.804475 -0.956995 -0.864784 -0.89069 -0.922251
96 Sudan -1.12616 -1.18061 -0.97173 -0.769087 -0.934142
97 Paraguay -0.889779 -0.88285 -0.957365 -0.972881 -0.943227
98 Vietnam -1.02124 -1.02634 -0.921859 -0.981722 -0.963484
99 Kenya -0.973226 -1.03404 -0.977025 -0.831707 -0.976501
100 Ecuador -1.00988 -0.967277 -0.93695 -0.967018 -1.02447
101 Zambia -0.456881 -0.67636 -0.700076 -0.907232 -1.05388
102 Ethiopia -0.964332 -0.971688 -0.932032 -1.04104 -1.0629
103 Tanzania -1.21869 -1.15103 -1.09958 -1.20393 -1.1225
104 Gabon -1.49476 -1.22518 -1.34855 -1.35225 -1.12944
105 Guinea -1.72938 -1.78419 -1.51676 -1.36752 -1.17895
106 Burma -1.13781 -1.09078 -1.05308 -1.12979 -1.22432
107 Mauritania -1.29351 -1.30447 -1.46739 -1.20645 -1.37675
108 Iran -1.19445 -1.21948 -1.28483 -1.22017 -1.44223
109 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.24313 -1.20444 -1.14496 -1.17493 -1.46347
110 Republic of the Congo -1.35371 -1.48802 -1.50959 -1.61876 -1.5417
111 Ghana -1.16574 -1.13832 -1.10949 -1.43848 -1.54193
112 Cote d'Ivoire -1.37116 -1.2969 -1.34105 -1.34779 -1.5516
113 Cameroon -1.77215 -1.72539 -1.76896 -1.65648 -1.88333
114 Angola -1.6952 -1.27093 -1.67635 -2.00679 -2.04018
115 Nigeria -1.64319 -1.72468 -2.01211 -1.84259 -2.17527