The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
1 Japan 2.44302 2.49215 2.41259 2.54183 2.55927
2 Germany 2.22515 2.32404 2.28213 2.29872 2.30351
3 Switzerland 2.25586 2.32899 2.28569 2.24492 2.26769
4 Sweden 2.18277 2.25942 2.22944 2.21793 2.14061
5 Austria 1.95901 2.00948 2.0734 2.12007 2.07826
6 Finland 1.81157 1.8564 1.89635 1.9172 1.87757
7 United Kingdom 1.92482 1.94726 1.90245 1.8913 1.81848
8 United States 1.62518 1.69659 1.73991 1.82759 1.77051
9 France 1.62708 1.71048 1.72926 1.71064 1.69969
10 Italy 1.71832 1.80255 1.73817 1.73744 1.68699
11 Denmark 1.69053 1.76411 1.72646 1.77819 1.59706
12 Belgium 1.43235 1.50294 1.53536 1.50225 1.50236
13 Czech Republic 1.33772 1.39329 1.4509
14 Slovenia 1.43562 1.38116 1.39101 1.42703
15 Netherlands 1.26567 1.35762 1.34249 1.38627 1.31958
16 Ireland 1.4218 1.41595 1.43868 1.41344 1.31883
17 Slovakia 1.20247 1.23843 1.26368
18 Spain 1.14192 1.21133 1.25191 1.22672 1.26353
19 Israel 1.15167 1.08292 1.23457 1.22134 1.11366
20 Singapore 0.761109 0.941948 0.857566 0.940113 1.0629
21 Hungary 0.805335 0.859383 0.856917 0.929671 1.00057
22 South Korea 0.876456 0.941965 0.821888 0.855669 0.9454
23 Canada 0.615339 0.580017 0.652211 0.819512 0.856119
24 Croatia 1.00807 0.889459 0.818057 0.824962
25 Mexico 0.684291 0.805366 0.807204 0.826065 0.785075
26 Norway 0.856934 0.886433 0.855982 0.836537 0.755938
27 Poland 0.666141 0.542584 0.550205 0.600638 0.659829
28 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.765632 0.760914 0.673995 0.635623
29 Hong Kong 0.883499 0.909419 0.613528 0.527659 0.594131
30 Brazil 0.417815 0.503414 0.471776 0.512414 0.558738
31 Belarus 0.33228 0.472178 0.378847 0.477808
32 Romania 0.693089 0.607645 0.55807 0.426141 0.469295
33 Georgia -0.21613 -0.039227 -0.014192 0.458729
34 Estonia 0.154759 0.217702 0.256368 0.457924
35 New Zealand 0.386536 0.285451 0.369015 0.424029 0.44124
36 Portugal 0.657358 0.6708 0.479471 0.365271 0.407458
37 Bulgaria 0.568584 0.429701 0.409459 0.364839 0.323871
38 Uruguay 0.065365 0.036769 0.137513 0.287779 0.317795
39 Moldova 0.546565 0.542856 0.360477 0.284536
40 Malaysia 0.1658 0.252923 0.115417 0.02807 0.258514
41 Macedonia 0.402287 0.237408 0.251441
42 China 0.284872 0.269057 0.170488 0.089156 0.234956
43 Russia -0.09975 0.057938 0.061145 0.148674
44 Thailand 0.059329 0.181246 0.140791 0.114266 0.134664
45 South Africa -0.168412 -0.025986 0.024123 0.113564 0.108519
46 Turkey 0.150355 0.175993 0.092905 0.035269 0.102971
47 Panama 0.169473 0.329985 0.139468 0.124251 0.091303
48 India 0.214645 0.189609 0.025898 -0.024145 0.066093
49 Lithuania 0.117757 0.159148 0.07006 0.063567
50 Ukraine 0.056669 0.127406 0.122931 0.062267
51 Kazakhstan -0.420723 -0.150128 -0.170424 0.059747
52 Lebanon 0.114161 0.110669 0.096162 0.126785 0.055535
53 Latvia -0.092093 -0.043451 -0.149621 0.046373
54 Saudi Arabia 0.152447 -0.207551 -0.241864 0.154833 0.042888
55 Australia -0.165157 -0.190559 -0.038421 -0.009273 0.04147
56 Argentina 0.092349 -0.063648 -0.010048 -0.02758 0.010787
57 Greece 0.143166 0.081695 0.099136 -0.006531 0.006074
58 Guatemala -0.124758 -0.099741 -0.106833 -0.040386 -0.006738
59 El Salvador 0.278094 0.400187 0.240982 0.148981 -0.018033
60 Trinidad and Tobago 0.23397 0.152904 0.280493 0.224247 -0.019194
61 Jordan 0.325138 -0.017063 -0.012239 0.002117 -0.026579
62 Colombia -0.086006 -0.040668 -0.092689 -0.137058 -0.057388
63 Venezuela 0.046246 -0.083257 -0.328245 -0.187383 -0.084909
64 Philippines -0.042884 0.002339 -0.146981 -0.108895 -0.119353
65 Tunisia -0.114127 0.028 -0.047817 -0.13953 -0.149132
66 Chile -0.336225 -0.397569 -0.365605 -0.296188 -0.197503
67 Costa Rica -0.013234 -0.004627 -0.039951 -0.155692 -0.202471
68 Azerbaijan -0.392366 -0.133873 -0.184645 -0.220812
69 Albania -0.210994 -0.242111 -0.195093 -0.179171 -0.286801
70 Zimbabwe -0.573003 -0.439256 -0.633409 -0.453192 -0.294163
71 United Arab Emirates -0.307082 -0.419576 -0.458894 -0.422395 -0.350496
72 Indonesia -0.40801 -0.490949 -0.506392 -0.489321 -0.366439
73 Peru -0.206643 -0.322969 -0.411949 -0.52763 -0.431251
74 Egypt -0.439201 -0.324477 -0.374028 -0.403994 -0.446871
75 Mozambique -0.202467 -0.064139 -0.153745 -0.26666 -0.45673
76 Dominican Republic -0.314759 -0.270596 -0.507464 -0.598513 -0.496314
77 Mongolia -0.3254 -0.374954 -0.293334 -0.451942 -0.540687
78 Nicaragua -0.601218 -0.413659 -0.365774 -0.351296 -0.611364
79 Paraguay -0.972881 -0.943227 -0.961847 -0.804891 -0.612841
80 Kenya -0.831707 -0.976501 -0.960591 -0.798098 -0.61515
81 Morocco -0.367125 -0.359833 -0.504796 -0.668407 -0.618859
82 Qatar -0.28138 -0.455776 -0.618398 -0.322743 -0.619172
83 Jamaica -0.3999 -0.285032 -0.394466 -0.569588 -0.64307
84 Honduras -0.42832 -0.369167 -0.581544 -0.603182 -0.647264
85 Oman -0.263525 -0.661055 -0.732341 -0.40115 -0.67748
86 Sri Lanka -0.446405 -0.319451 -0.474121 -0.655767 -0.681331
87 Uzbekistan -0.349566 -0.36545 -0.577566 -0.695181
88 Turkmenistan -0.53812 -0.83731 -0.920734 -0.737921
89 Bolivia -0.89069 -0.922251 -0.930338 -0.871765 -0.784781
90 Algeria -0.645687 -0.798032 -0.770482 -0.635657 -0.787497
91 Pakistan -0.56875 -0.608171 -0.70854 -0.817542 -0.79391
92 Senegal -0.712496 -0.880943 -0.92972 -1.09304 -0.794811
93 Laos -0.62024 -0.864734 -0.781282 -0.703118 -0.817567
94 Zambia -0.907232 -1.05388 -0.98827 -1.06644 -0.891487
95 Kuwait -0.676866 -0.586543 -0.37915 -0.534725 -0.907519
96 Syria -0.474933 -0.733972 -0.92472 -0.734558 -0.91366
97 Bangladesh -0.737013 -0.659387 -0.840842 -0.921693 -0.918699
98 Sudan -0.769087 -0.934142 -1.00416 -0.884069 -0.919266
99 Vietnam -0.981722 -0.963484 -1.04231 -1.04169 -0.928968
100 Iran -1.22017 -1.44223 -1.32054 -1.15496 -0.972758
101 Cambodia -0.478344 -0.845222 -1.01317 -1.02126 -0.985304
102 Yemen -0.842516 -0.768928 -0.654439 -0.585367 -0.990987
103 Ecuador -0.967018 -1.02447 -0.955749 -0.968503 -1.0181
104 Madagascar 0.013554 -0.151469 -1.15521 -1.08774 -1.0196
105 Ethiopia -1.04104 -1.0629 -0.916323 -0.729946 -1.02858
106 Mauritania -1.20645 -1.37675 -1.18484 -1.14335 -1.22374
107 Burma -1.12979 -1.22432 -1.28022 -1.19653 -1.25906
108 Tanzania -1.20393 -1.1225 -1.21508 -1.13622 -1.26575
109 Guinea -1.36752 -1.17895 -1.28595 -1.216 -1.27707
110 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.17493 -1.46347 -1.43311 -1.38968 -1.32594
111 Gabon -1.35225 -1.12944 -1.46737 -1.60925 -1.34952
112 Togo -0.74779 -0.852755 -0.75393 -1.28427 -1.377
113 Republic of the Congo -1.61876 -1.5417 -1.45875 -1.52143 -1.41008
114 Cote d'Ivoire -1.34779 -1.5516 -1.69313 -1.56816 -1.53247
115 Ghana -1.43848 -1.54193 -1.57914 -1.66955 -1.64302
116 Cameroon -1.65648 -1.88333 -1.95829 -1.86519 -1.70179
117 Angola -2.00679 -2.04018 -1.46963 -1.26224 -1.70503
118 Nigeria -1.84259 -2.17527 -2.01377 -2.08403 -2.08757