The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1 Japan 2.41259 2.54183 2.55927 2.62482 2.53902
2 Germany 2.28213 2.29872 2.30351 2.33549 2.25612
3 Switzerland 2.28569 2.24492 2.26769 2.2797 2.22311
4 Sweden 2.22944 2.21793 2.14061 2.15152 2.10031
5 Austria 2.0734 2.12007 2.07826 2.03268 1.91867
6 Finland 1.89635 1.9172 1.87757 1.93772 1.90875
7 United States 1.73991 1.82759 1.77051 1.83305 1.82767
8 United Kingdom 1.90245 1.8913 1.81848 1.80903 1.82057
9 France 1.72926 1.71064 1.69969 1.60763 1.58323
10 Italy 1.73817 1.73744 1.68699 1.63958 1.55468
11 Denmark 1.72646 1.77819 1.59706 1.52388 1.51091
12 Belgium 1.53536 1.50225 1.50236 1.43024 1.46882
13 Czech Republic 1.33772 1.39329 1.4509 1.42569 1.40372
14 Ireland 1.43868 1.41344 1.31883 1.34091 1.37233
15 Slovenia 1.38116 1.39101 1.42703 1.3489 1.34636
16 Netherlands 1.34249 1.38627 1.31958 1.33851 1.28338
17 Slovakia 1.20247 1.23843 1.26368 1.21663 1.23372
18 Spain 1.25191 1.22672 1.26353 1.19306 1.17464
19 South Korea 0.821888 0.855669 0.9454 1.02663 1.14944
20 Israel 1.23457 1.22134 1.11366 1.07941 1.11492
21 Singapore 0.857566 0.940113 1.0629 1.08779 0.983781
22 Hungary 0.856917 0.929671 1.00057 0.916166 0.92667
23 Canada 0.652211 0.819512 0.856119 0.891053 0.842988
24 Norway 0.855982 0.836537 0.755938 0.761752 0.829814
25 Poland 0.550205 0.600638 0.659829 0.752045 0.801098
26 Mexico 0.807204 0.826065 0.785075 0.713387 0.742549
27 Croatia 0.889459 0.818057 0.824962 0.74655 0.727172
28 Brazil 0.471776 0.512414 0.558738 0.529039 0.609912
29 Ukraine 0.127406 0.122931 0.062267 0.568178 0.5933
30 Estonia 0.217702 0.256368 0.457924 0.545415 0.514904
31 Bulgaria 0.409459 0.364839 0.323871 0.34916 0.501917
32 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.760914 0.673995 0.635623 0.580926 0.492681
33 Hong Kong 0.613528 0.527659 0.594131 0.471498 0.489159
34 Belarus 0.472178 0.378847 0.477808 0.607991 0.471432
35 Russia 0.057938 0.061145 0.148674 0.297075 0.469322
36 Romania 0.55807 0.426141 0.469295 0.48008 0.467421
37 Malaysia 0.115417 0.02807 0.258514 0.330865 0.454003
38 Azerbaijan -0.133873 -0.184645 -0.220812 0.295336 0.440148
39 Portugal 0.479471 0.365271 0.407458 0.403863 0.420509
40 New Zealand 0.369015 0.424029 0.44124 0.33429 0.34167
41 China 0.170488 0.089156 0.234956 0.221438 0.328308
42 Lithuania 0.159148 0.07006 0.063567 0.262575 0.282998
43 South Africa 0.024123 0.113564 0.108519 0.172478 0.252567
44 Latvia -0.043451 -0.149621 0.046373 0.247579 0.24158
45 Georgia -0.039227 -0.014192 0.458729 0.37478 0.20617
46 Uruguay 0.137513 0.287779 0.317795 0.281436 0.186327
47 Moldova 0.542856 0.360477 0.284536 0.209032 0.180126
48 Kazakhstan -0.150128 -0.170424 0.059747 0.320195 0.170617
49 Thailand 0.140791 0.114266 0.134664 0.08527 0.170387
50 Greece 0.099136 -0.006531 0.006074 0.029853 0.151935
51 Macedonia 0.402287 0.237408 0.251441 0.167876 0.132217
52 India 0.025898 -0.024145 0.066093 0.034912 0.101682
53 Turkey 0.092905 0.035269 0.102971 0.003711 0.099291
54 Jordan -0.012239 0.002117 -0.026579 -0.028269 0.060741
55 Lebanon 0.096162 0.126785 0.055535 -0.042066 0.014512
56 Argentina -0.010048 -0.02758 0.010787 -0.01855 0.012858
57 Trinidad and Tobago 0.280493 0.224247 -0.019194 0.049676 0.01063
58 Colombia -0.092689 -0.137058 -0.057388 -0.052715 0.003091
59 Australia -0.038421 -0.009273 0.04147 0.027905 -0.00787
60 Panama 0.139468 0.124251 0.091303 -0.035657 -0.014804
61 El Salvador 0.240982 0.148981 -0.018033 -0.191735 -0.111639
62 Costa Rica -0.039951 -0.155692 -0.202471 -0.259614 -0.11906
63 Venezuela -0.328245 -0.187383 -0.084909 -0.082202 -0.131131
64 Saudi Arabia -0.241864 0.154833 0.042888 -0.004363 -0.142044
65 Guatemala -0.106833 -0.040386 -0.006738 -0.09217 -0.183695
66 Philippines -0.146981 -0.108895 -0.119353 -0.264709 -0.193581
67 Chile -0.365605 -0.296188 -0.197503 -0.236143 -0.22503
68 United Arab Emirates -0.458894 -0.422395 -0.350496 -0.41129 -0.242739
69 Uzbekistan -0.36545 -0.577566 -0.695181 -0.329384 -0.257701
70 Indonesia -0.506392 -0.489321 -0.366439 -0.386413 -0.263329
71 Zimbabwe -0.633409 -0.453192 -0.294163 -0.243137 -0.366698
72 Albania -0.195093 -0.179171 -0.286801 -0.377064 -0.404282
73 Dominican Republic -0.507464 -0.598513 -0.496314 -0.469361 -0.453478
74 Peru -0.411949 -0.52763 -0.431251 -0.425053 -0.453811
75 Kuwait -0.37915 -0.534725 -0.907519 -0.637936 -0.456562
76 Tunisia -0.047817 -0.13953 -0.149132 -0.454045 -0.521211
77 Egypt -0.374028 -0.403994 -0.446871 -0.46767 -0.535714
78 Mozambique -0.153745 -0.26666 -0.45673 -0.831413 -0.569856
79 Turkmenistan -0.83731 -0.920734 -0.737921 -0.795773 -0.613978
80 Laos -0.781282 -0.703118 -0.817567 -0.54968 -0.647999
81 Nicaragua -0.365774 -0.351296 -0.611364 -0.759552 -0.658495
82 Kenya -0.960591 -0.798098 -0.61515 -0.555286 -0.667525
83 Mongolia -0.293334 -0.451942 -0.540687 -0.635697 -0.671654
84 Jamaica -0.394466 -0.569588 -0.64307 -0.740573 -0.679477
85 Paraguay -0.961847 -0.804891 -0.612841 -0.645988 -0.682574
86 Oman -0.732341 -0.40115 -0.67748 -0.498061 -0.685378
87 Honduras -0.581544 -0.603182 -0.647264 -0.716076 -0.695074
88 Qatar -0.618398 -0.322743 -0.619172 -0.606565 -0.709645
89 Morocco -0.504796 -0.668407 -0.618859 -0.768595 -0.720285
90 Iran -1.32054 -1.15496 -0.972758 -0.854963 -0.731991
91 Bolivia -0.930338 -0.871765 -0.784781 -0.670547 -0.761067
92 Sri Lanka -0.474121 -0.655767 -0.681331 -0.818788 -0.782064
93 Algeria -0.770482 -0.635657 -0.787497 -0.72511 -0.814718
94 Pakistan -0.70854 -0.817542 -0.79391 -0.831704 -0.81523
95 Senegal -0.92972 -1.09304 -0.794811 -1.14286 -0.839209
96 Vietnam -1.04231 -1.04169 -0.928968 -0.885671 -0.841634
97 Zambia -0.98827 -1.06644 -0.891487 -0.874625 -0.95923
98 Sudan -1.00416 -0.884069 -0.919266 -0.97249 -0.996098
99 Ecuador -0.955749 -0.968503 -1.0181 -1.06839 -1.01785
100 Syria -0.92472 -0.734558 -0.91366 -1.08399 -1.05905
101 Cambodia -1.01317 -1.02126 -0.985304 -0.931056 -1.05982
102 Bangladesh -0.840842 -0.921693 -0.918699 -1.06387 -1.06811
103 Togo -0.75393 -1.28427 -1.377 -1.31135 -1.12366
104 Madagascar -1.15521 -1.08774 -1.0196 -1.14395 -1.12751
105 Mauritania -1.18484 -1.14335 -1.22374 -1.32609 -1.13999
106 Tanzania -1.21508 -1.13622 -1.26575 -1.31053 -1.21963
107 Burma -1.28022 -1.19653 -1.25906 -1.25981 -1.2446
108 Yemen -0.654439 -0.585367 -0.990987 -1.33012 -1.25966
109 Ghana -1.57914 -1.66955 -1.64302 -1.36653 -1.27141
110 Republic of the Congo -1.45875 -1.52143 -1.41008 -0.845544 -1.29766
111 Ethiopia -0.916323 -0.729946 -1.02858 -1.20396 -1.33563
112 Cote d'Ivoire -1.69313 -1.56816 -1.53247 -1.2875 -1.37382
113 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.43311 -1.38968 -1.32594 -1.32809 -1.38505
114 Gabon -1.46737 -1.60925 -1.34952 -1.25007 -1.5865
115 Guinea -1.28595 -1.216 -1.27707 -1.34948 -1.64311
116 Cameroon -1.95829 -1.86519 -1.70179 -1.6158 -1.73434
117 Angola -1.46963 -1.26224 -1.70503 -1.75814 -1.79175
118 Nigeria -2.01377 -2.08403 -2.08757 -2.10242 -2.15015