The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
1 Japan 2.62482 2.53902 2.48434 2.51283 2.53454
2 Germany 2.33549 2.25612 2.20218 2.26714 2.26168
3 Switzerland 2.2797 2.22311 2.20498 2.20565 2.18502
4 United Kingdom 1.80903 1.82057 1.83921 1.95509 1.97386
5 Sweden 2.15152 2.10031 1.96355 1.9692 1.97269
6 United States 1.83305 1.82767 1.81703 1.85634 1.86251
7 Finland 1.93772 1.90875 1.89548 1.89805 1.85628
8 Austria 2.03268 1.91867 1.84365 1.80792 1.79399
9 Denmark 1.52388 1.51091 1.49822 1.58105 1.58813
10 France 1.60763 1.58323 1.54483 1.56021 1.58127
11 Singapore 1.08779 0.983781 1.09548 1.32845 1.55217
12 Czech Republic 1.42569 1.40372 1.43721 1.48955 1.5289
13 Italy 1.63958 1.55468 1.47994 1.49433 1.48962
14 Ireland 1.34091 1.37233 1.49523 1.39659 1.44934
15 Belgium 1.43024 1.46882 1.48359 1.45589 1.44647
16 Slovenia 1.3489 1.34636 1.306 1.34999 1.39814
17 Netherlands 1.33851 1.28338 1.2877 1.27953 1.31034
18 Slovakia 1.21663 1.23372 1.2153 1.20047 1.24483
19 Israel 1.07941 1.11492 1.14711 1.15445 1.22578
20 South Korea 1.02663 1.14944 1.03141 1.10914 1.19698
21 Spain 1.19306 1.17464 1.09293 1.05449 1.10231
22 Mexico 0.713387 0.742549 0.698187 0.78642 0.948962
23 Poland 0.752045 0.801098 0.830855 0.814231 0.902565
24 Canada 0.891053 0.842988 0.933069 0.853475 0.882912
25 Hungary 0.916166 0.92667 0.876291 0.780762 0.866768
26 Norway 0.761752 0.829814 0.928205 0.840261 0.771729
27 Croatia 0.74655 0.727172 0.677189 0.632074 0.665432
28 Malaysia 0.330865 0.454003 0.440481 0.471149 0.64597
29 Brazil 0.529039 0.609912 0.63263 0.63173 0.602188
30 Belarus 0.607991 0.471432 0.645948 0.607993 0.558912
31 Russia 0.297075 0.469322 0.593549 0.600178 0.556283
32 Portugal 0.403863 0.420509 0.461456 0.448254 0.54534
33 Estonia 0.545415 0.514904 0.547724 0.474429 0.502223
34 Ukraine 0.568178 0.5933 0.647333 0.562931 0.484355
35 Romania 0.48008 0.467421 0.491754 0.464376 0.474142
36 Hong Kong 0.471498 0.489159 0.326658 0.341021 0.466488
37 Bulgaria 0.34916 0.501917 0.483749 0.450126 0.442311
38 Thailand 0.08527 0.170387 0.14429 0.249545 0.371248
39 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.580926 0.492681 0.528119 0.456929 0.358552
40 China 0.221438 0.328308 0.254555 0.233022 0.307929
41 Lithuania 0.262575 0.282998 0.328792 0.30198 0.279794
42 New Zealand 0.33429 0.34167 0.359696 0.291932 0.27661
43 Jordan -0.028269 0.060741 0.156842 0.199525 0.225435
44 Georgia 0.37478 0.20617 0.172483 0.238245 0.211482
45 India 0.034912 0.101682 0.118969 0.196844 0.210091
46 South Africa 0.172478 0.252567 0.233557 0.266418 0.195963
47 Latvia 0.247579 0.24158 0.265352 0.314476 0.181396
48 Greece 0.029853 0.151935 0.179631 0.146522 0.159244
49 Uruguay 0.281436 0.186327 0.192193 0.150169 0.151318
50 Colombia -0.052715 0.003091 -0.033018 0.065018 0.130317
51 Panama -0.035657 -0.014804 0.022614 0.033458 0.107499
52 Turkey 0.003711 0.099291 0.065294 0.08533 0.096253
53 Argentina -0.01855 0.012858 0.063963 0.061027 0.067484
54 Lebanon -0.042066 0.014512 0.002854 -0.105666 0.009897
55 Trinidad and Tobago 0.049676 0.01063 0.1096 0.080107 -0.013316
56 Macedonia 0.167876 0.132217 0.07125 -0.023729 -0.014313
57 Venezuela -0.082202 -0.131131 0.01211 0.168625 -0.020923
58 Australia 0.027905 -0.00787 0.052213 -0.033744 -0.031123
59 Costa Rica -0.259614 -0.11906 -0.143079 -0.11122 -0.046819
60 Philippines -0.264709 -0.193581 -0.29749 -0.278829 -0.051153
61 El Salvador -0.191735 -0.111639 -0.014612 -0.030598 -0.077975
62 Moldova 0.209032 0.180126 0.087567 -0.067187 -0.079771
63 Azerbaijan 0.295336 0.440148 0.344791 0.14542 -0.094196
64 Saudi Arabia -0.004363 -0.142044 0.245782 0.133691 -0.104429
65 Indonesia -0.386413 -0.263329 -0.237833 -0.178447 -0.118525
66 Chile -0.236143 -0.22503 -0.123718 -0.122233 -0.120653
67 Guatemala -0.09217 -0.183695 -0.234772 -0.23064 -0.221969
68 Kazakhstan 0.320195 0.170617 0.133409 -0.153616 -0.260106
69 Albania -0.377064 -0.404282 -0.43934 -0.42106 -0.276055
70 Mozambique -0.831413 -0.569856 -0.642561 -0.134453 -0.308848
71 Tunisia -0.454045 -0.521211 -0.487393 -0.371227 -0.335308
72 Egypt -0.46767 -0.535714 -0.51622 -0.409572 -0.367532
73 Kuwait -0.637936 -0.456562 -0.548267 -0.517091 -0.386139
74 United Arab Emirates -0.41129 -0.242739 -0.291874 -0.306447 -0.407031
75 Botswana -0.411647
76 Zimbabwe -0.243137 -0.366698 -0.507259 -0.538359 -0.450373
77 Peru -0.425053 -0.453811 -0.519939 -0.452241 -0.454346
78 Sri Lanka -0.818788 -0.782064 -0.70323 -0.60947 -0.549153
79 Dominican Republic -0.469361 -0.453478 -0.558683 -0.7221 -0.55851
80 Qatar -0.606565 -0.709645 -0.67805 -0.829927 -0.566883
81 Kenya -0.555286 -0.667525 -0.662768 -0.601449 -0.605449
82 Paraguay -0.645988 -0.682574 -0.533852 -0.50479 -0.616288
83 Honduras -0.716076 -0.695074 -0.756757 -0.688814 -0.618441
84 Oman -0.498061 -0.685378 -0.518991 -0.615451 -0.620443
85 Uzbekistan -0.329384 -0.257701 -0.129301 -0.502809 -0.620734
86 Morocco -0.768595 -0.720285 -0.786999 -0.717755 -0.656
87 Vietnam -0.885671 -0.841634 -0.784948 -0.765394 -0.709704
88 Mongolia -0.635697 -0.671654 -0.72326 -0.818503 -0.725388
89 Mauritania -1.32609 -1.13999 -1.13432 -0.758452 -0.730751
90 Jamaica -0.740573 -0.679477 -0.605535 -0.673412 -0.737476
91 Senegal -1.14286 -0.839209 -0.973323 -0.87581 -0.793548
92 Namibia -0.811299
93 Bolivia -0.670547 -0.761067 -0.630502 -0.770524 -0.812611
94 Pakistan -0.831704 -0.81523 -0.825743 -0.799512 -0.835216
95 Nicaragua -0.759552 -0.658495 -0.713839 -0.793998 -0.839711
96 Ecuador -1.06839 -1.01785 -0.97281 -0.888551 -0.841814
97 Algeria -0.72511 -0.814718 -0.802829 -0.741165 -0.843424
98 Iran -0.854963 -0.731991 -0.760938 -0.816195 -0.943975
99 Togo -1.31135 -1.12366 -0.993679 -1.23014 -0.983632
100 Zambia -0.874625 -0.95923 -0.846865 -0.960927 -0.990725
101 Turkmenistan -0.795773 -0.613978 -0.792971 -0.815293 -0.995334
102 Bangladesh -1.06387 -1.06811 -1.08508 -1.07312 -0.997463
103 Syria -1.08399 -1.05905 -1.0725 -1.05652 -1.02673
104 Laos -0.54968 -0.647999 -0.57976 -0.806781 -1.05256
105 Ethiopia -1.20396 -1.33563 -1.34347 -1.08673 -1.09717
106 Cambodia -0.931056 -1.05982 -1.36686 -1.22901 -1.15353
107 Cote d'Ivoire -1.2875 -1.37382 -1.26317 -1.30078 -1.156
108 Madagascar -1.14395 -1.12751 -1.159 -1.1058 -1.16221
109 Gabon -1.25007 -1.5865 -1.55086 -1.14666 -1.18934
110 Tanzania -1.31053 -1.21963 -1.29562 -1.15902 -1.27194
111 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.32809 -1.38505 -1.33985 -1.52529 -1.27315
112 Ghana -1.36653 -1.27141 -1.23054 -1.34344 -1.29443
113 Burma -1.25981 -1.2446 -1.24911 -1.15924 -1.30999
114 Republic of the Congo -0.845544 -1.29766 -1.24502 -1.45647 -1.42348
115 Sudan -0.97249 -0.996098 -1.21251 -1.15646 -1.44871
116 Yemen -1.33012 -1.25966 -1.50222 -1.60913 -1.51089
117 Angola -1.75814 -1.79175 -1.60166 -1.61325 -1.67367
118 Guinea -1.34948 -1.64311 -1.76458 -1.80391 -1.70685
119 Cameroon -1.6158 -1.73434 -1.83434 -1.81816 -1.77589
120 Nigeria -2.10242 -2.15015 -2.10267 -2.0675 -2.02891