The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
1 Japan 2.48434 2.51283 2.53454 2.52662 2.61165
2 Germany 2.20218 2.26714 2.26168 2.23828 2.2377
3 Switzerland 2.20498 2.20565 2.18502 2.24412 2.19269
4 Sweden 1.96355 1.9692 1.97269 1.98924 2.0381
5 United Kingdom 1.83921 1.95509 1.97386 1.9704 1.99456
6 United States 1.81703 1.85634 1.86251 1.85189 1.87944
7 Finland 1.89548 1.89805 1.85628 1.85446 1.86151
8 Austria 1.84365 1.80792 1.79399 1.73102 1.72614
9 Singapore 1.09548 1.32845 1.55217 1.51534 1.62663
10 France 1.54483 1.56021 1.58127 1.58792 1.60699
11 Czech Republic 1.43721 1.48955 1.5289 1.52518 1.56631
12 Ireland 1.49523 1.39659 1.44934 1.45836 1.55977
13 Denmark 1.49822 1.58105 1.58813 1.56798 1.54904
14 Italy 1.47994 1.49433 1.48962 1.52985 1.48036
15 Slovenia 1.306 1.34999 1.39814 1.45239 1.42297
16 Belgium 1.48359 1.45589 1.44647 1.40065 1.37079
17 South Korea 1.03141 1.10914 1.19698 1.23895 1.29563
18 Slovakia 1.2153 1.20047 1.24483 1.2636 1.23843
19 Netherlands 1.2877 1.27953 1.31034 1.23203 1.15767
20 Spain 1.09293 1.05449 1.10231 1.14719 1.15073
21 Israel 1.14711 1.15445 1.22578 1.19289 1.10809
22 Hungary 0.876291 0.780762 0.866768 0.992979 1.06683
23 Mexico 0.698187 0.78642 0.948962 0.905129 0.958907
24 Poland 0.830855 0.814231 0.902565 0.939812 0.941757
25 Canada 0.933069 0.853475 0.882912 0.864428 0.89244
26 Malaysia 0.440481 0.471149 0.64597 0.615196 0.734542
27 Belarus 0.645948 0.607993 0.558912 0.842052 0.722964
28 Norway 0.928205 0.840261 0.771729 0.712675 0.66816
29 Croatia 0.677189 0.632074 0.665432 0.631126 0.638124
30 Hong Kong 0.326658 0.341021 0.466488 0.617995 0.588883
31 Portugal 0.461456 0.448254 0.54534 0.554852 0.539252
32 Russia 0.593549 0.600178 0.556283 0.580501 0.515668
33 Estonia 0.547724 0.474429 0.502223 0.584589 0.498964
34 Ukraine 0.647333 0.562931 0.484355 0.458828 0.475434
35 Romania 0.491754 0.464376 0.474142 0.441733 0.459015
36 Brazil 0.63263 0.63173 0.602188 0.512734 0.450486
37 Thailand 0.14429 0.249545 0.371248 0.393173 0.435905
38 China 0.254555 0.233022 0.307929 0.378568 0.41801
39 Bulgaria 0.483749 0.450126 0.442311 0.344109 0.384387
40 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.528119 0.456929 0.358552 0.302574 0.242517
41 India 0.118969 0.196844 0.210091 0.285222 0.216505
42 New Zealand 0.359696 0.291932 0.27661 0.255177 0.192239
43 Greece 0.179631 0.146522 0.159244 0.205573 0.190595
44 Latvia 0.265352 0.314476 0.181396 0.174325 0.180464
45 Colombia -0.033018 0.065018 0.130317 0.154886 0.165579
46 Lithuania 0.328792 0.30198 0.279794 0.192432 0.161984
47 Georgia 0.172483 0.238245 0.211482 0.217142 0.138305
48 Costa Rica -0.143079 -0.11122 -0.046819 -0.057797 0.102606
49 Trinidad and Tobago 0.1096 0.080107 -0.013316 0.058879 0.096957
50 Panama 0.022614 0.033458 0.107499 0.131178 0.081602
51 Turkey 0.065294 0.08533 0.096253 0.103766 0.05963
52 South Africa 0.233557 0.266418 0.195963 0.102827 0.055371
53 Uruguay 0.192193 0.150169 0.151318 0.11815 0.023785
54 Lebanon 0.002854 -0.105666 0.009897 0.081991 0.013337
55 Indonesia -0.237833 -0.178447 -0.118525 -0.006918 -0.011234
56 Albania -0.43934 -0.42106 -0.276055 -0.047386 -0.01742
57 Moldova 0.087567 -0.067187 -0.079771 -0.058476 -0.019165
58 Philippines -0.29749 -0.278829 -0.051153 -0.067078 -0.025559
59 Argentina 0.063963 0.061027 0.067484 0.065941 -0.048438
60 Saudi Arabia 0.245782 0.133691 -0.104429 -0.047194 -0.054635
61 Macedonia 0.07125 -0.023729 -0.014313 0.004857 -0.069498
62 Australia 0.052213 -0.033744 -0.031123 -0.06647 -0.073102
63 Venezuela 0.01211 0.168625 -0.020923 -0.136609 -0.07666
64 Chile -0.123718 -0.122233 -0.120653 -0.097452 -0.089827
65 El Salvador -0.014612 -0.030598 -0.077975 -0.09812 -0.125807
66 Jordan 0.156842 0.199525 0.225435 0.259856 -0.130406
67 Tunisia -0.487393 -0.371227 -0.335308 -0.176462 -0.17907
68 Kazakhstan 0.133409 -0.153616 -0.260106 -0.296089 -0.213565
69 Kuwait -0.548267 -0.517091 -0.386139 -0.407039 -0.300179
70 Qatar -0.67805 -0.829927 -0.566883 -0.488146 -0.309149
71 United Arab Emirates -0.291874 -0.306447 -0.407031 -0.447912 -0.312063
72 Guatemala -0.234772 -0.23064 -0.221969 -0.314302 -0.397476
73 Egypt -0.51622 -0.409572 -0.367532 -0.432688 -0.40861
74 Togo -0.993679 -1.23014 -0.983632 -0.560002 -0.471307
75 Azerbaijan 0.344791 0.14542 -0.094196 -0.582499 -0.473538
76 Peru -0.519939 -0.452241 -0.454346 -0.504695 -0.537658
77 Zimbabwe -0.507259 -0.538359 -0.450373 -0.48607 -0.53834
78 Dominican Republic -0.558683 -0.7221 -0.55851 -0.502652 -0.541407
79 Paraguay -0.533852 -0.50479 -0.616288 -0.633126 -0.601299
80 Vietnam -0.784948 -0.765394 -0.709704 -0.633173 -0.612566
81 Sri Lanka -0.70323 -0.60947 -0.549153 -0.575275 -0.618172
82 Jamaica -0.605535 -0.673412 -0.737476 -0.616227 -0.636068
83 Kenya -0.662768 -0.601449 -0.605449 -0.513933 -0.653247
84 Namibia -0.811299 -0.753271 -0.663161
85 Morocco -0.786999 -0.717755 -0.656 -0.703032 -0.676159
86 Botswana -0.411647 -0.826433 -0.686412
87 Pakistan -0.825743 -0.799512 -0.835216 -0.809969 -0.689205
88 Uzbekistan -0.129301 -0.502809 -0.620734 -0.819991 -0.701587
89 Mongolia -0.72326 -0.818503 -0.725388 -0.735884 -0.746776
90 Honduras -0.756757 -0.688814 -0.618441 -0.730843 -0.784403
91 Laos -0.57976 -0.806781 -1.05256 -0.928956 -0.789641
92 Nicaragua -0.713839 -0.793998 -0.839711 -0.75545 -0.805578
93 Algeria -0.802829 -0.741165 -0.843424 -0.906108 -0.808618
94 Bolivia -0.630502 -0.770524 -0.812611 -0.881527 -0.836185
95 Iran -0.760938 -0.816195 -0.943975 -0.875579 -0.837151
96 Ecuador -0.97281 -0.888551 -0.841814 -0.871608 -0.878596
97 Senegal -0.973323 -0.87581 -0.793548 -0.888731 -0.931708
98 Oman -0.518991 -0.615451 -0.620443 -0.947925 -0.932646
99 Ethiopia -1.34347 -1.08673 -1.09717 -0.99011 -0.933984
100 Turkmenistan -0.792971 -0.815293 -0.995334 -1.1145 -0.943435
101 Mozambique -0.642561 -0.134453 -0.308848 -0.754133 -0.949386
102 Mauritania -1.13432 -0.758452 -0.730751 -0.797881 -0.951643
103 Zambia -0.846865 -0.960927 -0.990725 -1.10573 -0.99658
104 Bangladesh -1.08508 -1.07312 -0.997463 -0.995853 -1.03815
105 Cambodia -1.36686 -1.22901 -1.15353 -1.04926 -1.04947
106 Syria -1.0725 -1.05652 -1.02673 -1.04357 -1.08415
107 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.33985 -1.52529 -1.27315 -1.1108 -1.10486
108 Ghana -1.23054 -1.34344 -1.29443 -1.17101 -1.13735
109 Cote d'Ivoire -1.26317 -1.30078 -1.156 -1.08336 -1.14553
110 Madagascar -1.159 -1.1058 -1.16221 -1.08675 -1.15522
111 Burma -1.24911 -1.15924 -1.30999 -1.29669 -1.18614
112 Gabon -1.55086 -1.14666 -1.18934 -0.920493 -1.26716
113 Tanzania -1.29562 -1.15902 -1.27194 -1.23882 -1.27368
114 Republic of the Congo -1.24502 -1.45647 -1.42348 -1.25988 -1.30159
115 Sudan -1.21251 -1.15646 -1.44871 -1.48732 -1.4476
116 Yemen -1.50222 -1.60913 -1.51089 -1.57309 -1.48922
117 Cameroon -1.83434 -1.81816 -1.77589 -1.76353 -1.53014
118 Guinea -1.76458 -1.80391 -1.70685 -1.76285 -1.72383
119 Nigeria -2.10267 -2.0675 -2.02891 -1.99444 -1.91639
120 Angola -1.60166 -1.61325 -1.67367 -1.71443 -2.04759