The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1 Japan 2.52662 2.61165 2.45075 2.47862 2.46767
2 Germany 2.23828 2.2377 2.19574 2.20445 2.15958
3 Switzerland 2.24412 2.19269 2.12764 2.05783 2.06907
4 Sweden 1.98924 2.0381 2.09665 2.08697 2.02943
5 Finland 1.85446 1.86151 1.80769 1.81559 1.80046
6 United Kingdom 1.9704 1.99456 1.94824 1.89629 1.77065
7 Austria 1.73102 1.72614 1.76393 1.81965 1.74605
8 United States 1.85189 1.87944 1.85046 1.76594 1.74324
9 Singapore 1.51534 1.62663 1.53699 1.63902 1.5652
10 Czech Republic 1.52518 1.56631 1.55938 1.53388 1.54784
11 Slovenia 1.45239 1.42297 1.42282 1.55648 1.54609
12 France 1.58792 1.60699 1.60873 1.55541 1.54456
13 Denmark 1.56798 1.54904 1.50739 1.50872 1.4818
14 South Korea 1.23895 1.29563 1.31421 1.27258 1.41097
15 Italy 1.52985 1.48036 1.37375 1.3861 1.39804
16 Ireland 1.45836 1.55977 1.62751 1.51601 1.3506
17 Slovakia 1.2636 1.23843 1.20213 1.20926 1.28788
18 Belgium 1.40065 1.37079 1.37738 1.33257 1.27927
19 Netherlands 1.23203 1.15767 1.21646 1.18126 1.18347
20 Hungary 0.992979 1.06683 1.11232 1.15856 1.17404
21 Israel 1.19289 1.10809 1.04926 1.1044 1.0958
22 Spain 1.14719 1.15073 1.04465 1.04322 1.0347
23 Mexico 0.905129 0.958907 1.02195 0.978828 0.986745
24 Poland 0.939812 0.941757 0.897007 0.899269 0.967138
25 Belarus 0.842052 0.722964 0.723122 0.832963 0.858138
26 Canada 0.864428 0.89244 0.919277 0.862716 0.848054
27 Malaysia 0.615196 0.734542 0.753853 0.854059 0.795607
28 Norway 0.712675 0.66816 0.758139 0.775049 0.757271
29 Croatia 0.631126 0.638124 0.645311 0.681113 0.735727
30 Estonia 0.584589 0.498964 0.515964 0.562663 0.674146
31 Portugal 0.554852 0.539252 0.488495 0.559365 0.627309
32 Ukraine 0.458828 0.475434 0.488237 0.551859 0.595211
33 Hong Kong 0.617995 0.588883 0.549568 0.567609 0.574415
34 Russia 0.580501 0.515668 0.65224 0.568381 0.557305
35 China 0.378568 0.41801 0.442061 0.452979 0.474971
36 Thailand 0.393173 0.435905 0.418108 0.446709 0.463214
37 Brazil 0.512734 0.450486 0.42281 0.399357 0.450112
38 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.302574 0.242517 0.210007 0.365334 0.429642
39 Latvia 0.174325 0.180464 0.311667 0.309156 0.427594
40 Romania 0.441733 0.459015 0.373828 0.320218 0.42384
41 Bulgaria 0.344109 0.384387 0.365341 0.309366 0.34386
42 New Zealand 0.255177 0.192239 0.25454 0.287348 0.334674
43 Lithuania 0.192432 0.161984 0.164931 0.196164 0.309178
44 Turkey 0.103766 0.05963 0.176945 0.177247 0.252509
45 Greece 0.205573 0.190595 0.221214 0.210503 0.233397
46 South Africa 0.102827 0.055371 0.128366 0.094685 0.16654
47 India 0.285222 0.216505 0.176804 0.152537 0.158145
48 Lebanon 0.081991 0.013337 -0.056157 -0.017576 0.113553
49 Colombia 0.154886 0.165579 0.141137 0.108143 0.108932
50 Panama 0.131178 0.081602 0.033435 0.025462 0.036751
51 Argentina 0.065941 -0.048438 -0.022571 0.002533 0.03593
52 Trinidad and Tobago 0.058879 0.096957 0.071435 0.003869 0.033114
53 Qatar -0.488146 -0.309149 -0.418974 0.1045 0.024745
54 Uruguay 0.11815 0.023785 0.096728 -0.045061 0.017114
55 Costa Rica -0.057797 0.102606 0.010613 -0.004518 0.006471
56 Indonesia -0.006918 -0.011234 -0.015577 -0.079228 -0.03753
57 Jordan 0.259856 -0.130406 -0.113429 0.012317 -0.044752
58 Moldova -0.058476 -0.019165 0.042335 -0.019115 -0.071912
59 Saudi Arabia -0.047194 -0.054635 0.104983 0.155848 -0.074557
60 El Salvador -0.09812 -0.125807 -0.102685 -0.094959 -0.080838
61 United Arab Emirates -0.447912 -0.312063 -0.157405 -0.090661 -0.085822
62 Macedonia 0.004857 -0.069498 -0.172163 -0.062273 -0.107521
63 Philippines -0.067078 -0.025559 -0.005396 -0.0344 -0.119035
64 Venezuela -0.136609 -0.07666 -0.062459 -0.134651 -0.147508
65 Chile -0.097452 -0.089827 -0.069191 -0.150324 -0.150391
66 Tunisia -0.176462 -0.17907 -0.316525 -0.279088 -0.159174
67 Georgia 0.217142 0.138305 0.178932 -0.17425 -0.18585
68 Australia -0.06647 -0.073102 -0.038353 -0.218672 -0.213502
69 Albania -0.047386 -0.01742 -0.02384 -0.128714 -0.245883
70 Kazakhstan -0.296089 -0.213565 -0.102081 -0.271761 -0.249486
71 Guatemala -0.314302 -0.397476 -0.408678 -0.353519 -0.260139
72 Kuwait -0.407039 -0.300179 -0.156717 -0.11916 -0.268955
73 Jamaica -0.616227 -0.636068 -0.538303 -0.294213 -0.307798
74 Egypt -0.432688 -0.40861 -0.368092 -0.351883 -0.313441
75 Dominican Republic -0.502652 -0.541407 -0.469881 -0.300896 -0.332228
76 Zimbabwe -0.48607 -0.53834 -0.343785 -0.373302 -0.395862
77 Uzbekistan -0.819991 -0.701587 -0.463409 -0.453 -0.433318
78 Morocco -0.703032 -0.676159 -0.76984 -0.648625 -0.48776
79 Paraguay -0.633126 -0.601299 -0.566719 -0.603935 -0.516896
80 Sri Lanka -0.575275 -0.618172 -0.62927 -0.59254 -0.543395
81 Peru -0.504695 -0.537658 -0.514557 -0.648479 -0.579638
82 Kenya -0.513933 -0.653247 -0.575552 -0.701251 -0.6198
83 Vietnam -0.633173 -0.612566 -0.630272 -0.653033 -0.632908
84 Honduras -0.730843 -0.784403 -0.656674 -0.566724 -0.676137
85 Syria -1.04357 -1.08415 -0.941886 -0.86175 -0.749744
86 Azerbaijan -0.582499 -0.473538 -0.36504 -0.595619 -0.769416
87 Ecuador -0.871608 -0.878596 -0.856247 -0.846191 -0.77456
88 Angola -1.71443 -2.04759 -2.06924 -0.705732 -0.787959
89 Pakistan -0.809969 -0.689205 -0.751032 -0.770235 -0.789144
90 Oman -0.947925 -0.932646 -0.745175 -0.540399 -0.792679
91 Namibia -0.753271 -0.663161 -0.554921 -0.655761 -0.805754
92 Senegal -0.888731 -0.931708 -0.972446 -0.872446 -0.809369
93 Nicaragua -0.75545 -0.805578 -0.807707 -0.763565 -0.820232
94 Botswana -0.826433 -0.686412 -0.818465 -0.708473 -0.845061
95 Togo -0.560002 -0.471307 -0.676074 -0.758799 -0.856163
96 Bolivia -0.881527 -0.836185 -0.797802 -0.919345 -0.856918
97 Laos -0.928956 -0.789641 -0.843126 -1.01988 -0.891806
98 Iran -0.875579 -0.837151 -0.853785 -0.881575 -0.898796
99 Turkmenistan -1.1145 -0.943435 -0.952721 -0.940244 -0.915679
100 Mongolia -0.735884 -0.746776 -0.681431 -0.865264 -0.924295
101 Zambia -1.10573 -0.99658 -1.09653 -0.934754 -0.925683
102 Ethiopia -0.99011 -0.933984 -0.93631 -1.1606 -0.937456
103 Algeria -0.906108 -0.808618 -0.875592 -1.11 -1.11468
104 Cambodia -1.04926 -1.04947 -1.02579 -1.14921 -1.17042
105 Tanzania -1.23882 -1.27368 -1.14524 -1.19819 -1.17276
106 Mozambique -0.754133 -0.949386 -1.20899 -1.34734 -1.1731
107 Bangladesh -0.995853 -1.03815 -1.1201 -1.23386 -1.17652
108 Madagascar -1.08675 -1.15522 -1.20383 -1.20019 -1.18539
109 Cote d'Ivoire -1.08336 -1.14553 -1.23738 -1.27946 -1.2167
110 Mauritania -0.797881 -0.951643 -0.976701 -1.53823 -1.22737
111 Guinea -1.76285 -1.72383 -1.59046 -1.3383 -1.23361
112 Burma -1.29669 -1.18614 -1.23973 -1.3014 -1.23916
113 Gabon -0.920493 -1.26716 -1.6291 -0.956786 -1.31646
114 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.1108 -1.10486 -1.1042 -1.16123 -1.34175
115 Ghana -1.17101 -1.13735 -1.24972 -1.35863 -1.38268
116 Yemen -1.57309 -1.48922 -1.44892 -1.56273 -1.54465
117 Republic of the Congo -1.25988 -1.30159 -1.35403 -1.41438 -1.56017
118 Cameroon -1.76353 -1.53014 -1.45477 -1.55106 -1.81234
119 Sudan -1.48732 -1.4476 -1.5408 -1.57514 -1.82539
120 Nigeria -1.99444 -1.91639 -2.05963 -2.40836 -2.32188