The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
1 Japan 2.45075 2.47862 2.46767 2.40412 2.34652
2 Germany 2.19574 2.20445 2.15958 2.11126 2.01485
3 Switzerland 2.12764 2.05783 2.06907 2.05479 1.99311
4 Sweden 2.09665 2.08697 2.02943 1.94426 1.91852
5 Finland 1.80769 1.81559 1.80046 1.77725 1.77327
6 United Kingdom 1.94824 1.89629 1.77065 1.72653 1.7096
7 Austria 1.76393 1.81965 1.74605 1.7452 1.70293
8 United States 1.85046 1.76594 1.74324 1.66414 1.62483
9 Singapore 1.53699 1.63902 1.5652 1.46932 1.55653
10 South Korea 1.31421 1.27258 1.41097 1.52046 1.54709
11 Czech Republic 1.55938 1.53388 1.54784 1.55209 1.52445
12 France 1.60873 1.55541 1.54456 1.50134 1.47143
13 Slovenia 1.42282 1.55648 1.54609 1.49585 1.44105
14 Denmark 1.50739 1.50872 1.4818 1.44935 1.40257
15 Hungary 1.11232 1.15856 1.17404 1.2364 1.30326
16 Italy 1.37375 1.3861 1.39804 1.34865 1.29984
17 Ireland 1.62751 1.51601 1.3506 1.37041 1.29819
18 Belgium 1.37738 1.33257 1.27927 1.23122 1.26407
19 Slovakia 1.20213 1.20926 1.28788 1.27784 1.20851
20 Netherlands 1.21646 1.18126 1.18347 1.09357 1.09737
21 Israel 1.04926 1.1044 1.0958 1.04361 1.08661
22 Mexico 1.02195 0.978828 0.986745 1.10303 1.06339
23 Spain 1.04465 1.04322 1.0347 1.02466 1.02372
24 Poland 0.897007 0.899269 0.967138 0.968439 0.978851
25 Croatia 0.645311 0.681113 0.735727 0.787117 0.842586
26 Canada 0.919277 0.862716 0.848054 0.811793 0.789332
27 Malaysia 0.753853 0.854059 0.795607 0.781241 0.716039
28 Estonia 0.515964 0.562663 0.674146 0.694548 0.713069
29 Belarus 0.723122 0.832963 0.858138 0.856248 0.682706
30 Serbia 0.620072 0.678498
31 Romania 0.373828 0.320218 0.42384 0.493627 0.673123
32 Norway 0.758139 0.775049 0.757271 0.716319 0.660506
33 Portugal 0.488495 0.559365 0.627309 0.638432 0.637016
34 China 0.442061 0.452979 0.474971 0.587449 0.632635
35 Ukraine 0.488237 0.551859 0.595211 0.553144 0.601226
36 Latvia 0.311667 0.309156 0.427594 0.532376 0.549968
37 Brazil 0.42281 0.399357 0.450112 0.477157 0.548606
38 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.210007 0.365334 0.429642 0.52393 0.529734
39 Hong Kong 0.549568 0.567609 0.574415 0.5907 0.527091
40 Lithuania 0.164931 0.196164 0.309178 0.448797 0.521501
41 Russia 0.65224 0.568381 0.557305 0.607811 0.510294
42 Thailand 0.418108 0.446709 0.463214 0.433048 0.491304
43 Turkey 0.176945 0.177247 0.252509 0.366668 0.413431
44 Bulgaria 0.365341 0.309366 0.34386 0.373395 0.410246
45 New Zealand 0.25454 0.287348 0.334674 0.348336 0.340088
46 Lebanon -0.056157 -0.017576 0.113553 0.169187 0.298636
47 Panama 0.033435 0.025462 0.036751 0.120865 0.262895
48 Greece 0.221214 0.210503 0.233397 0.172724 0.204131
49 India 0.176804 0.152537 0.158145 0.167513 0.168601
50 South Africa 0.128366 0.094685 0.16654 0.237984 0.165269
51 Philippines -0.005396 -0.0344 -0.119035 -0.000206 0.123978
52 Jordan -0.113429 0.012317 -0.044752 0.009857 0.116103
53 Argentina -0.022571 0.002533 0.03593 0.053536 0.073768
54 Uruguay 0.096728 -0.045061 0.017114 0.009544 0.065203
55 Colombia 0.141137 0.108143 0.108932 0.053324 0.024946
56 Tunisia -0.316525 -0.279088 -0.159174 -0.131907 -0.002222
57 United Arab Emirates -0.157405 -0.090661 -0.085822 0.027597 -0.021976
58 Costa Rica 0.010613 -0.004518 0.006471 -0.074199 -0.022522
59 Qatar -0.418974 0.1045 0.024745 -0.164568 -0.052826
60 Moldova 0.042335 -0.019115 -0.071912 -0.133663 -0.072815
61 Indonesia -0.015577 -0.079228 -0.03753 -0.118449 -0.08396
62 Saudi Arabia 0.104983 0.155848 -0.074557 -0.14292 -0.153061
63 Trinidad and Tobago 0.071435 0.003869 0.033114 -0.015152 -0.153895
64 Macedonia -0.172163 -0.062273 -0.107521 -0.191644 -0.17045
65 Australia -0.038353 -0.218672 -0.213502 -0.155239 -0.171363
66 Chile -0.069191 -0.150324 -0.150391 -0.196433 -0.171878
67 El Salvador -0.102685 -0.094959 -0.080838 -0.116526 -0.189023
68 Egypt -0.368092 -0.351883 -0.313441 -0.225445 -0.220008
69 Dominican Republic -0.469881 -0.300896 -0.332228 -0.211474 -0.222327
70 Guatemala -0.408678 -0.353519 -0.260139 -0.295499 -0.227969
71 Georgia 0.178932 -0.17425 -0.18585 -0.305433 -0.257126
72 Oman -0.745175 -0.540399 -0.792679 -0.520017 -0.267441
73 Jamaica -0.538303 -0.294213 -0.307798 -0.427749 -0.281016
74 Kazakhstan -0.102081 -0.271761 -0.249486 -0.208866 -0.340398
75 Venezuela -0.062459 -0.134651 -0.147508 -0.163963 -0.342388
76 Kuwait -0.156717 -0.11916 -0.268955 -0.163299 -0.350656
77 Vietnam -0.630272 -0.653033 -0.632908 -0.518922 -0.378907
78 Sri Lanka -0.62927 -0.59254 -0.543395 -0.49913 -0.429014
79 Albania -0.02384 -0.128714 -0.245883 -0.395101 -0.490889
80 Uzbekistan -0.463409 -0.453 -0.433318 -0.430205 -0.494788
81 Zimbabwe -0.343785 -0.373302 -0.395862 -0.404289 -0.495619
82 Morocco -0.76984 -0.648625 -0.48776 -0.504934 -0.522127
83 Pakistan -0.751032 -0.770235 -0.789144 -0.628576 -0.562095
84 Paraguay -0.566719 -0.603935 -0.516896 -0.602863 -0.582084
85 Peru -0.514557 -0.648479 -0.579638 -0.554171 -0.614336
86 Honduras -0.656674 -0.566724 -0.676137 -0.74113 -0.623958
87 Kenya -0.575552 -0.701251 -0.6198 -0.703524 -0.680229
88 Algeria -0.875592 -1.11 -1.11468 -0.788727 -0.682755
89 Syria -0.941886 -0.86175 -0.749744 -0.694426 -0.685109
90 Iran -0.853785 -0.881575 -0.898796 -0.79443 -0.750568
91 Laos -0.843126 -1.01988 -0.891806 -0.883054 -0.820657
92 Ecuador -0.856247 -0.846191 -0.77456 -0.851284 -0.834038
93 Bolivia -0.797802 -0.919345 -0.856918 -0.851524 -0.871062
94 Senegal -0.972446 -0.872446 -0.809369 -0.821983 -0.889482
95 Botswana -0.818465 -0.708473 -0.845061 -0.856364 -0.891555
96 Togo -0.676074 -0.758799 -0.856163 -0.931563 -0.895164
97 Nicaragua -0.807707 -0.763565 -0.820232 -0.892176 -0.900827
98 Turkmenistan -0.952721 -0.940244 -0.915679 -0.757745 -0.917194
99 Zambia -1.09653 -0.934754 -0.925683 -1.17274 -0.921299
100 Namibia -0.554921 -0.655761 -0.805754 -0.846134 -0.936692
101 Gabon -1.6291 -0.956786 -1.31646 -1.26555 -0.961084
102 Bangladesh -1.1201 -1.23386 -1.17652 -1.19826 -1.01275
103 Mongolia -0.681431 -0.865264 -0.924295 -0.971723 -1.03852
104 Ghana -1.24972 -1.35863 -1.38268 -1.22288 -1.05022
105 Madagascar -1.20383 -1.20019 -1.18539 -1.11331 -1.08764
106 Azerbaijan -0.36504 -0.595619 -0.769416 -0.981761 -1.08907
107 Ethiopia -0.93631 -1.1606 -0.937456 -1.05951 -1.14921
108 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.1042 -1.16123 -1.34175 -1.35887 -1.17151
109 Tanzania -1.14524 -1.19819 -1.17276 -1.19109 -1.17687
110 Cambodia -1.02579 -1.14921 -1.17042 -1.20287 -1.2005
111 Burma -1.23973 -1.3014 -1.23916 -1.24742 -1.20659
112 Mozambique -1.20899 -1.34734 -1.1731 -1.2241 -1.27774
113 Cote d'Ivoire -1.23738 -1.27946 -1.2167 -1.31008 -1.29502
114 Yemen -1.44892 -1.56273 -1.54465 -1.51778 -1.39501
115 Guinea -1.59046 -1.3383 -1.23361 -1.22219 -1.53055
116 Cameroon -1.45477 -1.55106 -1.81234 -1.80901 -1.62851
117 Mauritania -0.976701 -1.53823 -1.22737 -1.73472 -1.82521
118 Republic of the Congo -1.35403 -1.41438 -1.56017 -1.6858 -1.82685
119 Angola -2.06924 -0.705732 -0.787959 -0.798225 -1.91304
120 Nigeria -2.05963 -2.40836 -2.32188 -2.1849 -2.06466
121 Sudan -1.5408 -1.57514 -1.82539 -1.99046 -2.07678