The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Download    Download All Years

Showing

Year Range

Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
1 Japan 2.40412 2.34652 2.23856 2.17852 2.11934
2 Switzerland 2.05479 1.99311 1.92034 1.91828 1.91575
3 Germany 2.11126 2.01485 1.95078 1.91653 1.88894
4 Sweden 1.94426 1.91852 1.89436 1.80167 1.75419
5 Austria 1.7452 1.70293 1.68159 1.69369 1.68617
6 Finland 1.77725 1.77327 1.75639 1.71426 1.67979
7 Singapore 1.46932 1.55653 1.49843 1.57804 1.58854
8 South Korea 1.52046 1.54709 1.52745 1.49631 1.57505
9 United Kingdom 1.72653 1.7096 1.67044 1.61184 1.57193
10 Czech Republic 1.55209 1.52445 1.5676 1.56901 1.55689
11 United States 1.66414 1.62483 1.58866 1.53293 1.49428
12 France 1.50134 1.47143 1.46951 1.46536 1.45099
13 Hungary 1.2364 1.30326 1.35814 1.3362 1.39419
14 Slovenia 1.49585 1.44105 1.39082 1.41407 1.38479
15 Slovakia 1.27784 1.20851 1.26737 1.271 1.35695
16 Italy 1.34865 1.29984 1.3267 1.35289 1.34589
17 Ireland 1.37041 1.29819 1.35691 1.37428 1.33093
18 Denmark 1.44935 1.40257 1.33589 1.30232 1.29129
19 Belgium 1.23122 1.26407 1.22398 1.18347 1.1659
20 Netherlands 1.09357 1.09737 1.10431 1.04799 1.09691
21 Israel 1.04361 1.08661 1.21518 1.19138 1.09395
22 Poland 0.968439 0.978851 1.0255 1.02992 1.03324
23 Spain 1.02466 1.02372 1.01644 1.02007 1.01742
24 Mexico 1.10303 1.06339 1.08324 0.995923 1.00189
25 Croatia 0.787117 0.842586 0.806099 0.853091 0.926024
26 China 0.587449 0.632635 0.715732 0.753508 0.774908
27 Thailand 0.433048 0.491304 0.510058 0.606687 0.736971
28 Portugal 0.638432 0.637016 0.677586 0.6909 0.706405
29 Estonia 0.694548 0.713069 0.710075 0.716777 0.704934
30 Canada 0.811793 0.789332 0.741557 0.711973 0.703779
31 Romania 0.493627 0.673123 0.731384 0.685378 0.698277
32 Belarus 0.856248 0.682706 0.690402 0.668625 0.675162
33 Norway 0.716319 0.660506 0.563568 0.588332 0.635977
34 Latvia 0.532376 0.549968 0.61794 0.60544 0.626987
35 Serbia 0.620072 0.678498 0.63928 0.658953 0.621737
36 Malaysia 0.781241 0.716039 0.691407 0.624253 0.588052
37 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.52393 0.529734 0.553484 0.522361 0.574773
38 Albania -0.395101 -0.490889 0.151114 0.563279 0.552788
39 Lithuania 0.448797 0.521501 0.571855 0.518934 0.549397
40 Ukraine 0.553144 0.601226 0.551676 0.526113 0.51783
41 Hong Kong 0.5907 0.527091 0.582715 0.498958 0.508935
42 Bulgaria 0.373395 0.410246 0.446085 0.39622 0.467999
43 Panama 0.120865 0.262895 0.327072 0.406595 0.456574
44 Turkey 0.366668 0.413431 0.434059 0.408188 0.432695
45 Lebanon 0.169187 0.298636 0.330028 0.365837 0.253783
46 Brazil 0.477157 0.548606 0.396395 0.265535 0.248326
47 Jordan 0.009857 0.116103 0.072889 0.243351 0.244437
48 Greece 0.172724 0.204131 0.176237 0.246401 0.243817
49 Philippines -0.000206 0.123978 0.193846 0.185253 0.209171
50 Uruguay 0.009544 0.065203 0.0148 0.092839 0.201715
51 Colombia 0.053324 0.024946 0.220323 0.21155 0.18691
52 Saudi Arabia -0.14292 -0.153061 -0.587461 -0.424999 0.159707
53 Russia 0.607811 0.510294 0.262064 0.236851 0.153215
54 New Zealand 0.348336 0.340088 0.314978 0.224349 0.14369
55 South Africa 0.237984 0.165269 0.142773 0.074112 0.119045
56 India 0.167513 0.168601 0.195512 0.156613 0.111379
57 Costa Rica -0.074199 -0.022522 0.076485 0.099231 0.10939
58 Botswana -0.856364 -0.891555 -0.499249 0.160551 0.103461
59 Tunisia -0.131907 -0.002222 0.045962 -0.002907 0.073213
60 Argentina 0.053536 0.073768 0.077066 0.071968 0.03248
61 United Arab Emirates 0.027597 -0.021976 -0.087372 -0.090659 0.022855
62 Moldova -0.133663 -0.072815 -0.027445 -0.045761 -0.016908
63 El Salvador -0.116526 -0.189023 -0.061823 -0.081826 -0.049824
64 Macedonia -0.191644 -0.17045 -0.147629 -0.093479 -0.074848
65 Indonesia -0.118449 -0.08396 -0.020326 -0.071984 -0.12726
66 Jamaica -0.427749 -0.281016 -0.122977 -0.185574 -0.177172
67 Guatemala -0.295499 -0.227969 -0.119904 -0.174861 -0.207441
68 Oman -0.520017 -0.267441 -0.413821 -0.385965 -0.217931
69 Egypt -0.225445 -0.220008 -0.203256 -0.246454 -0.222178
70 Dominican Republic -0.211474 -0.222327 -0.167914 -0.225693 -0.237717
71 Chile -0.196433 -0.171878 -0.22253 -0.222266 -0.244314
72 Kuwait -0.163299 -0.350656 -0.576707 -0.561737 -0.273291
73 Georgia -0.305433 -0.257126 -0.480803 -0.332959 -0.285249
74 Qatar -0.164568 -0.052826 -0.332957 -0.175169 -0.321962
75 Vietnam -0.518922 -0.378907 -0.320109 -0.350821 -0.350102
76 Australia -0.155239 -0.171363 -0.210701 -0.331165 -0.397884
77 Uzbekistan -0.430205 -0.494788 -0.381779 -0.464363 -0.440298
78 Sri Lanka -0.49913 -0.429014 -0.413415 -0.404041 -0.462231
79 Kenya -0.703524 -0.680229 -0.50892 -0.515603 -0.462247
80 Kazakhstan -0.208866 -0.340398 -0.457024 -0.358499 -0.463165
81 Trinidad and Tobago -0.015152 -0.153895 -0.665608 -0.578275 -0.466174
82 Syria -0.694426 -0.685109 -0.528191 -0.499214 -0.507876
83 Namibia -0.846134 -0.936692 -0.64927 -0.455053 -0.528921
84 Morocco -0.504934 -0.522127 -0.422183 -0.495026 -0.543964
85 Paraguay -0.602863 -0.582084 -0.592209 -0.511621 -0.577246
86 Pakistan -0.628576 -0.562095 -0.521128 -0.549741 -0.595481
87 Venezuela -0.163963 -0.342388 -0.674475 -0.594428 -0.600758
88 Peru -0.554171 -0.614336 -0.635521 -0.669472 -0.63866
89 Honduras -0.74113 -0.623958 -0.634949 -0.726013 -0.687012
90 Ecuador -0.851284 -0.834038 -0.803638 -0.867623 -0.7082
91 Nicaragua -0.892176 -0.900827 -0.69023 -0.690234 -0.763813
92 Turkmenistan -0.757745 -0.917194 -0.891974 -0.8061 -0.783954
93 Zimbabwe -0.404289 -0.495619 -0.452638 -0.66792 -0.803228
94 Bolivia -0.851524 -0.871062 -0.795241 -0.828261 -0.821025
95 Togo -0.931563 -0.895164 -0.707087 -0.825125 -0.965744
96 Laos -0.883054 -0.820657 -0.903238 -0.957344 -0.991139
97 Bangladesh -1.19826 -1.01275 -0.936713 -0.927904 -1.00757
98 Zambia -1.17274 -0.921299 -0.984426 -1.06916 -1.01419
99 Madagascar -1.11331 -1.08764 -0.98895 -0.99845 -1.02866
100 Iran -0.79443 -0.750568 -1.04616 -1.04947 -1.03542
101 Cambodia -1.20287 -1.2005 -1.06295 -0.985864 -1.04752
102 Mongolia -0.971723 -1.03852 -0.996349 -0.920288 -1.0525
103 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.35887 -1.17151 -1.11877 -1.23828 -1.06271
104 Tanzania -1.19109 -1.17687 -1.1291 -1.0167 -1.07147
105 Azerbaijan -0.981761 -1.08907 -1.00637 -1.08488 -1.08757
106 Gabon -1.26555 -0.961084 -0.693013 -0.749222 -1.09114
107 Senegal -0.821983 -0.889482 -0.910768 -1.00621 -1.09485
108 Ghana -1.22288 -1.05022 -1.01148 -0.965165 -1.12736
109 Algeria -0.788727 -0.682755 -1.03209 -1.07781 -1.15498
110 Burma -1.24742 -1.20659 -1.19618 -1.24182 -1.20578
111 Ethiopia -1.05951 -1.14921 -1.3133 -1.30834 -1.2717
112 Mozambique -1.2241 -1.27774 -1.30539 -1.27566 -1.34061
113 Cote d'Ivoire -1.31008 -1.29502 -1.26803 -1.36195 -1.4005
114 Yemen -1.51778 -1.39501 -1.48326 -1.37207 -1.54769
115 Cameroon -1.80901 -1.62851 -1.59003 -1.45045 -1.64686
116 Republic of the Congo -1.6858 -1.82685 -1.89518 -1.79244 -1.77145
117 Mauritania -1.73472 -1.82521 -1.78088 -1.80625 -1.79613
118 Sudan -1.99046 -2.07678 -1.94729 -2.02485 -1.8002
119 Guinea -1.22219 -1.53055 -1.58997 -1.71668 -1.82734
120 Angola -0.798225 -1.91304 -1.95195 -1.96257 -2.01309
121 Nigeria -2.1849 -2.06466 -2.53077 -2.76425 -2.35951