The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1 Japan 2.23856 2.17852 2.11934 2.31329 2.32408
2 Switzerland 1.92034 1.91828 1.91575 1.95964 2.01041
3 Germany 1.95078 1.91653 1.88894 1.9408 1.87347
4 Sweden 1.89436 1.80167 1.75419 1.80518 1.75179
5 Austria 1.68159 1.69369 1.68617 1.7891 1.71686
6 Singapore 1.49843 1.57804 1.58854 1.68651 1.70347
7 Czech Republic 1.5676 1.56901 1.55689 1.69489 1.68896
8 South Korea 1.52745 1.49631 1.57505 1.70696 1.64658
9 Finland 1.75639 1.71426 1.67979 1.71439 1.61173
10 Hungary 1.35814 1.3362 1.39419 1.53397 1.52192
11 United Kingdom 1.67044 1.61184 1.57193 1.54878 1.49378
12 United States 1.58866 1.53293 1.49428 1.49138 1.45359
13 Slovenia 1.39082 1.41407 1.38479 1.46906 1.43073
14 France 1.46951 1.46536 1.45099 1.43611 1.36854
15 Slovakia 1.26737 1.271 1.35695 1.37252 1.3272
16 Italy 1.3267 1.35289 1.34589 1.33488 1.31024
17 Israel 1.21518 1.19138 1.09395 1.21174 1.27127
18 Ireland 1.35691 1.37428 1.33093 1.1731 1.24971
19 Denmark 1.33589 1.30232 1.29129 1.2369 1.13685
20 Hong Kong 0.582715 0.498958 0.508935 0.801652 1.09895
21 Belgium 1.22398 1.18347 1.1659 1.13515 1.04707
22 China 0.715732 0.753508 0.774908 0.909906 1.00792
23 Thailand 0.510058 0.606687 0.736971 0.870845 0.964292
24 Poland 1.0255 1.02992 1.03324 1.07468 0.960828
25 Mexico 1.08324 0.995923 1.00189 1.00796 0.954246
26 Croatia 0.806099 0.853091 0.926024 0.91927 0.92595
27 Malaysia 0.691407 0.624253 0.588052 0.791729 0.91952
28 Netherlands 1.10431 1.04799 1.09691 0.952353 0.885129
29 Spain 1.01644 1.02007 1.01742 0.980784 0.842403
30 Belarus 0.690402 0.668625 0.675162 0.918398 0.82272
31 Estonia 0.710075 0.716777 0.704934 0.746338 0.76017
32 Panama 0.327072 0.406595 0.456574 0.630553 0.741643
33 Lithuania 0.571855 0.518934 0.549397 0.64032 0.722513
34 Romania 0.731384 0.685378 0.698277 0.73466 0.70694
35 Portugal 0.677586 0.6909 0.706405 0.650139 0.6184
36 Norway 0.563568 0.588332 0.635977 0.535507 0.571734
37 Latvia 0.61794 0.60544 0.626987 0.600318 0.571625
38 Serbia 0.63928 0.658953 0.621737 0.590053 0.562507
39 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.553484 0.522361 0.574773 0.592368 0.545884
40 Canada 0.741557 0.711973 0.703779 0.526191 0.534847
41 Bulgaria 0.446085 0.39622 0.467999 0.447953 0.497365
42 Ukraine 0.551676 0.526113 0.51783 0.480965 0.469842
43 Turkey 0.434059 0.408188 0.432695 0.42938 0.450234
44 Philippines 0.193846 0.185253 0.209171 0.331523 0.394726
45 Tunisia 0.045962 -0.002907 0.073213 0.233429 0.291069
46 Lebanon 0.330028 0.365837 0.253783 0.293449 0.281872
47 Costa Rica 0.076485 0.099231 0.10939 0.024263 0.247592
48 Jordan 0.072889 0.243351 0.244437 0.161675 0.216056
49 New Zealand 0.314978 0.224349 0.14369 0.064004 0.166665
50 Brazil 0.396395 0.265535 0.248326 0.190826 0.161553
51 India 0.195512 0.156613 0.111379 0.091946 0.144541
52 Moldova -0.027445 -0.045761 -0.016908 0.049706 0.115221
53 Russia 0.262064 0.236851 0.153215 0.009965 0.077047
54 Colombia 0.220323 0.21155 0.18691 -0.001219 0.049744
55 Uruguay 0.0148 0.092839 0.201715 0.081756 -0.003597
56 El Salvador -0.061823 -0.081826 -0.049824 -0.117335 -0.007233
57 United Arab Emirates -0.087372 -0.090659 0.022855 0.030733 -0.009763
58 Greece 0.176237 0.246401 0.243817 0.052732 -0.02161
59 South Africa 0.142773 0.074112 0.119045 0.016592 -0.023795
60 Saudi Arabia -0.587461 -0.424999 0.159707 -0.074789 -0.07214
61 Indonesia -0.020326 -0.071984 -0.12726 -0.143199 -0.087123
62 Vietnam -0.320109 -0.350821 -0.350102 -0.215986 -0.104485
63 Macedonia -0.147629 -0.093479 -0.074848 -0.165571 -0.146735
64 Argentina 0.077066 0.071968 0.03248 -0.063178 -0.148047
65 Georgia -0.480803 -0.332959 -0.285249 -0.152888 -0.168891
66 Namibia -0.64927 -0.455053 -0.528921 -0.602309 -0.241151
67 Dominican Republic -0.167914 -0.225693 -0.237717 -0.26414 -0.256286
68 Guatemala -0.119904 -0.174861 -0.207441 -0.390539 -0.293485
69 Egypt -0.203256 -0.246454 -0.222178 -0.289977 -0.321576
70 Chile -0.22253 -0.222266 -0.244314 -0.328124 -0.333627
71 Jamaica -0.122977 -0.185574 -0.177172 -0.215289 -0.349499
72 Sri Lanka -0.413415 -0.404041 -0.462231 -0.482129 -0.368732
73 Qatar -0.332957 -0.175169 -0.321962 -0.395827 -0.390929
74 Honduras -0.634949 -0.726013 -0.687012 -0.690727 -0.398168
75 Kuwait -0.576707 -0.561737 -0.273291 -0.296786 -0.436697
76 Albania 0.151114 0.563279 0.552788 0.272749 -0.472586
77 Australia -0.210701 -0.331165 -0.397884 -0.516626 -0.528256
78 Uzbekistan -0.381779 -0.464363 -0.440298 -0.555588 -0.531504
79 Botswana -0.499249 0.160551 0.103461 -0.354011 -0.532549
80 Morocco -0.422183 -0.495026 -0.543964 -0.509268 -0.535805
81 Cameroon -1.59003 -1.45045 -1.64686 -0.618845 -0.546339
82 Kenya -0.50892 -0.515603 -0.462247 -0.610053 -0.580113
83 Zambia -0.984426 -1.06916 -1.01419 -0.750633 -0.621731
84 Senegal -0.910768 -1.00621 -1.09485 -0.810511 -0.622244
85 Paraguay -0.592209 -0.511621 -0.577246 -0.619805 -0.645452
86 Ecuador -0.803638 -0.867623 -0.7082 -0.770023 -0.708563
87 Nicaragua -0.69023 -0.690234 -0.763813 -0.883107 -0.71229
88 Madagascar -0.98895 -0.99845 -1.02866 -0.831354 -0.726138
89 Tanzania -1.1291 -1.0167 -1.07147 -0.995243 -0.730645
90 Peru -0.635521 -0.669472 -0.63866 -0.746415 -0.742204
91 Oman -0.413821 -0.385965 -0.217931 -0.431956 -0.742942
92 Togo -0.707087 -0.825125 -0.965744 -0.837184 -0.778208
93 Kazakhstan -0.457024 -0.358499 -0.463165 -0.853388 -0.787489
94 Pakistan -0.521128 -0.549741 -0.595481 -0.752351 -0.805746
95 Bolivia -0.795241 -0.828261 -0.821025 -0.939743 -0.853344
96 Trinidad and Tobago -0.665608 -0.578275 -0.466174 -0.567857 -0.858712
97 Iran -1.04616 -1.04947 -1.03542 -1.00321 -0.886393
98 Bangladesh -0.936713 -0.927904 -1.00757 -1.10503 -0.943499
99 Cambodia -1.06295 -0.985864 -1.04752 -1.20676 -0.95203
100 Zimbabwe -0.452638 -0.66792 -0.803228 -0.918402 -1.00205
101 Ghana -1.01148 -0.965165 -1.12736 -1.05444 -1.00907
102 Laos -0.903238 -0.957344 -0.991139 -1.01474 -1.05514
103 Cote d'Ivoire -1.26803 -1.36195 -1.4005 -1.20641 -1.0558
104 Turkmenistan -0.891974 -0.8061 -0.783954 -1.00593 -1.09788
105 Republic of the Congo -1.89518 -1.79244 -1.77145 -1.21695 -1.12329
106 Venezuela -0.674475 -0.594428 -0.600758 -0.811479 -1.12529
107 Yemen -1.48326 -1.37207 -1.54769 -1.22062 -1.14902
108 Ethiopia -1.3133 -1.30834 -1.2717 -1.26465 -1.15076
109 Mozambique -1.30539 -1.27566 -1.34061 -1.3111 -1.16195
110 Democratic Republic of the Congo -1.11877 -1.23828 -1.06271 -1.06695 -1.29544
111 Mongolia -0.996349 -0.920288 -1.0525 -1.20509 -1.35158
112 Gabon -0.693013 -0.749222 -1.09114 -0.829728 -1.36163
113 Azerbaijan -1.00637 -1.08488 -1.08757 -1.44623 -1.50891
114 Algeria -1.03209 -1.07781 -1.15498 -1.28473 -1.56777
115 Nigeria -2.53077 -2.76425 -2.35951 -1.71191 -1.61348
116 Sudan -1.94729 -2.02485 -1.8002 -1.93445 -1.65831
117 Guinea -1.58997 -1.71668 -1.82734 -1.72675 -1.66077
118 Mauritania -1.78088 -1.80625 -1.79613 -1.86292 -1.6776
119 Angola -1.95195 -1.96257 -2.01309 -2.09087 -2.79136
120 Syria -0.528191 -0.499214 -0.507876 -0.670493
121 Burma -1.19618 -1.24182 -1.20578 -1.27821