The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

Download    Download All Years

Showing

Year Range

Country 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1 Japan 2.37352 2.31842 2.29751 2.27406 2.30938
2 Switzerland 2.05181 1.99456 2.15805 2.22117 2.24386
3 Germany 1.84608 1.81367 2.09809 2.08459 2.07537
4 Singapore 1.71717 1.71171 1.746 1.79973 1.86534
5 Sweden 1.75214 1.6459 1.92429 1.86277 1.80773
6 South Korea 1.82762 1.90646 1.65462 1.69142 1.77613
7 United States 1.43702 1.30167 1.8166 1.78168 1.75541
8 Finland 1.57477 1.49895 1.77048 1.72464 1.70679
9 Czech Republic 1.53381 1.52129 1.67011 1.66047 1.6431
10 Austria 1.72767 1.64981 1.68354 1.63921 1.62894
11 United Kingdom 1.45544 1.40296 1.6425 1.5493 1.53259
12 Slovenia 1.4359 1.41088 1.42499 1.44739 1.4319
13 Ireland 1.28901 1.22044 1.35298 1.40903 1.40023
14 France 1.24155 1.15748 1.41803 1.40465 1.38964
15 Hungary 1.43941 1.38229 1.35493 1.37204 1.38444
16 Slovakia 1.21794 1.20436 1.31956 1.34513 1.3402
17 Israel 1.22703 1.14081 1.23759 1.27878 1.3146
18 Netherlands 0.818227 0.756212 1.31596 1.28874 1.30343
19 Denmark 0.995356 0.95349 1.23141 1.21947 1.1577
20 Italy 1.21525 1.24155 1.11574 1.10767 1.11743
21 Mexico 0.846744 0.953003 1.15387 1.16038 1.09955
22 Norway 0.614676 0.667969 1.21126 1.19882 1.09466
23 Poland 0.817343 0.839266 1.10641 1.09864 1.09432
24 Canada 0.421886 0.411362 1.12953 1.08422 1.05671
25 Malaysia 0.810485 0.828817 0.938148 0.995461 0.971372
26 Estonia 0.68394 0.752262 0.86561 0.843983 0.898422
27 Russia 0.048022 0.008439 0.855036 0.8547 0.852045
28 Spain 0.700457 0.701443 0.820536 0.80013 0.777415
29 Saudi Arabia -0.462099 -0.369927 0.870754 0.819673 0.747155
30 Belarus 0.689295 0.731427 0.836874 0.743585 0.743075
31 Romania 0.751166 0.787654 0.561038 0.620618 0.713669
32 Thailand 0.87724 0.955651 0.590169 0.650521 0.711704
33 China 1.04036 1.16379 0.60941 0.642376 0.691307
34 Lithuania 0.673455 0.63807 0.667051 0.627923 0.675449
35 Latvia 0.478137 0.431584 0.629273 0.649569 0.653054
36 Croatia 0.822129 0.837178 0.657789 0.666972 0.623091
37 Brazil 0.032264 -0.151225 0.696066 0.648284 0.608252
38 Hong Kong 1.26313 1.35236 0.426902 0.520167 0.594188
39 Ukraine 0.28954 0.268345 0.658954 0.619115 0.556886
40 Serbia 0.361921 0.366673 0.520936 0.546327 0.532947
41 New Zealand -0.096978 -0.119421 0.59338 0.488085 0.483484
42 Qatar -0.41667 -0.264365 0.322636 0.499297 0.396207
43 Philippines 0.341858 0.477815 0.111666 0.220265 0.381087
44 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.562599 0.578374 0.32009 0.328647 0.372865
45 India -0.134587 -0.014696 0.254162 0.31413 0.359807
46 Bulgaria 0.278113 0.290812 0.358694 0.327278 0.347659
47 South Africa -0.192079 -0.204966 0.303549 0.28477 0.268797
48 Portugal 0.433862 0.4937 0.255319 0.26363 0.258555
49 Costa Rica 0.158575 0.093993 0.135131 0.231586 0.237988
50 Argentina -0.496513 -0.502072 0.462111 0.360496 0.232335
51 Uruguay -0.330617 -0.349791 0.220677 0.177011 0.207869
52 Turkey 0.287393 0.378481 0.133999 0.150909 0.175726
53 Colombia -0.234596 -0.194463 0.0953318 0.11439 0.144356
54 United Arab Emirates -0.090032 -0.362895 0.124122 0.0911202 0.128674
55 Greece -0.210378 -0.167862 0.113201 0.106201 0.125884
56 Panama 0.710402 -0.558959 0.0789054 0.124958 0.119062
57 Kuwait -1.49314 -0.836979 0.25958 0.235139 0.11607
58 Kazakhstan -0.961147 -1.00924 0.0243757 0.157371 0.0883664
59 Australia -0.816851 -0.846322 0.0971997 0.146237 0.0863035
60 Lebanon 0.107992 0.177455 0.11624 0.0486427 0.0803256
61 Chile -0.499261 -0.532363 0.0316813 0.0611241 0.0443139
62 Trinidad and Tobago -0.219598 -0.174918 -0.0506048
63 Georgia -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.13572 -0.104348 -0.0587891
64 Oman -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.297732 -0.0404026 -0.0609077
65 Jordan -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.0543591 -0.101439 -0.149852
66 Iran -0.934617 -0.157821 -0.158038
67 Jamaica -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.285952 -0.258965 -0.239734
68 Kyrgyzstan -0.430339 -0.33118 -0.286814
69 Tunisia 0.16411 0.214778 -0.323836 -0.323494 -0.287626
70 Macedonia -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.39802 -0.379236 -0.290303
71 Indonesia -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.382548 -0.359668 -0.305644
72 Egypt -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.376617 -0.346329 -0.319753
73 El Salvador -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.518145 -0.491815 -0.336211
74 Dominican Republic -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.422355 -0.382253 -0.363374
75 Cuba -0.274702 -0.379871
76 Moldova -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.388113 -0.475939 -0.464417
77 Uganda -0.379853 -0.383244 -0.512514
78 Zambia -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.219831 -0.367271 -0.514087
79 Senegal -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.498182 -0.583953 -0.518687
80 Mauritius -0.666129 -0.638339 -0.579654
81 Peru -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.645699 -0.565693 -0.598962
82 Guatemala -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.555447 -0.57015 -0.616793
83 Vietnam -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.707104 -0.669703 -0.623084
84 Azerbaijan -1.44358 -1.7818 -0.674689 -0.650166 -0.654587
85 Venezuela -0.942948 -0.667168 -0.655229
86 Paraguay -0.982503 -1.10231 -0.63956 -0.767192 -0.676455
87 Honduras -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.844833 -0.765916 -0.744556
88 Syria -0.633554 -0.744963
89 Kenya -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.690631 -0.705736 -0.747829
90 Mali -1.29791 -0.99785 -0.767797
91 Malawi -0.438195 -0.468412 -0.768715
92 Albania -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.896511 -0.90769 -0.781571
93 Mongolia -1.67769 -1.55696 -0.851358 -0.767706 -0.78801
94 Algeria -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.01136 -0.937221 -0.811671
95 Zimbabwe -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.697917 -0.707958 -0.811801
96 Uzbekistan -0.873889 -0.895987 -0.847152
97 Liberia -0.719266 -0.98089 -0.854269
98 Pakistan -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.922811 -0.935143 -0.859978
99 Morocco -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.877951 -0.861004 -0.89235
100 Republic of the Congo -0.675039 -0.730753 -1.03802 -1.07835 -0.898092
101 Sri Lanka -0.530163 -0.369437 -1.05527 -0.972538 -0.901589
102 Ecuador -1.06674 -1.30875 -0.768335 -0.950771 -0.933232
103 Mauritania -0.833422 -0.963114
104 Libya -1.26778 -0.965428
105 Yemen -1.34438 -0.912604 -0.757001 -0.97195
106 Cameroon -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.0069 -0.814567 -1.01371
107 Tanzania -0.919298 -1.03347 -0.879252 -0.97857 -1.01705
108 Bolivia -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.06538 -1.06344 -1.07744
109 Tajikistan -1.17436 -1.03731 -1.10384
110 Cote d'Ivoire -1.05279 -1.17654 -0.965066 -0.987537 -1.12772
111 Ghana -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.04762 -1.21682 -1.15388
112 Turkmenistan -1.48447 -1.27173 -1.19506
113 Gabon -1.06145 -1.36159 -1.22477
114 Mozambique -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.18598 -1.18114 -1.24908
115 Laos -1.21682 -1.19835 -1.25108
116 Ethiopia -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.31886 -1.30394 -1.27445
117 Angola -1.25745 -1.16876 -1.3177
118 Nicaragua -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.31615 -1.34285 -1.33756
119 Cambodia -0.904026 -0.723043 -1.47629 -1.44677 -1.37692
120 Sudan -1.873 -1.84461 -1.53738 -1.63482 -1.45787
121 Madagascar -0.823322 -0.820193 -1.49269 -1.47536 -1.45882
122 Guinea -2.17828 -1.22835 -1.44215 -1.51688
123 Bangladesh -1.17559 -1.76105 -1.77822 -1.71442
124 Nigeria -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.60088 -1.73247 -1.90268
125 Papua New Guinea -1.75799 -2.00821
126 Togo -0.671987 -0.462205
127 Namibia -0.328879 -0.381863
128 Botswana -0.574288 -0.790862
129 Belgium 0.951062 0.90581