The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1 Japon 2.37352 2.31842 2.29751 2.27406 2.30938
2 Suisse 2.05181 1.99456 2.15805 2.22117 2.24386
3 Allemagne 1.84608 1.81367 2.09809 2.08459 2.07537
4 Singapour 1.71717 1.71171 1.746 1.79973 1.86534
5 Suède 1.75214 1.6459 1.92429 1.86277 1.80773
6 Corée du Sud 1.82762 1.90646 1.65462 1.69142 1.77613
7 États-Unis 1.43702 1.30167 1.8166 1.78168 1.75541
8 Finlande 1.57477 1.49895 1.77048 1.72464 1.70679
9 République tchèque 1.53381 1.52129 1.67011 1.66047 1.6431
10 Autriche 1.72767 1.64981 1.68354 1.63921 1.62894
11 Royaume-Uni 1.45544 1.40296 1.6425 1.5493 1.53259
12 Slovénie 1.4359 1.41088 1.42499 1.44739 1.4319
13 Irlande 1.28901 1.22044 1.35298 1.40903 1.40023
14 France 1.24155 1.15748 1.41803 1.40465 1.38964
15 Hongrie 1.43941 1.38229 1.35493 1.37204 1.38444
16 Slovaquie 1.21794 1.20436 1.31956 1.34513 1.3402
17 Israël 1.22703 1.14081 1.23759 1.27878 1.3146
18 Pays-Bas 0.818227 0.756212 1.31596 1.28874 1.30343
19 Danemark 0.995356 0.95349 1.23141 1.21947 1.1577
20 Italie 1.21525 1.24155 1.11574 1.10767 1.11743
21 Mexique 0.846744 0.953003 1.15387 1.16038 1.09955
22 Norvège 0.614676 0.667969 1.21126 1.19882 1.09466
23 Pologne 0.817343 0.839266 1.10641 1.09864 1.09432
24 Canada 0.421886 0.411362 1.12953 1.08422 1.05671
25 Malaisie 0.810485 0.828817 0.938148 0.995461 0.971372
26 Estonie 0.68394 0.752262 0.86561 0.843983 0.898422
27 Russie 0.048022 0.008439 0.855036 0.8547 0.852045
28 Espagne 0.700457 0.701443 0.820536 0.80013 0.777415
29 Arabie Saoudite -0.462099 -0.369927 0.870754 0.819673 0.747155
30 Bélarus 0.689295 0.731427 0.836874 0.743585 0.743075
31 Roumanie 0.751166 0.787654 0.561038 0.620618 0.713669
32 Thaïlande 0.87724 0.955651 0.590169 0.650521 0.711704
33 Chine 1.04036 1.16379 0.60941 0.642376 0.691307
34 Lituanie 0.673455 0.63807 0.667051 0.627923 0.675449
35 Lettonie 0.478137 0.431584 0.629273 0.649569 0.653054
36 Croatie 0.822129 0.837178 0.657789 0.666972 0.623091
37 Brésil 0.032264 -0.151225 0.696066 0.648284 0.608252
38 Hong-Kong 1.26313 1.35236 0.426902 0.520167 0.594188
39 Ukraine 0.28954 0.268345 0.658954 0.619115 0.556886
40 Serbie 0.361921 0.366673 0.520936 0.546327 0.532947
41 Nouvelle-Zélande -0.096978 -0.119421 0.59338 0.488085 0.483484
42 Qatar -0.41667 -0.264365 0.322636 0.499297 0.396207
43 Philippines 0.341858 0.477815 0.111666 0.220265 0.381087
44 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.562599 0.578374 0.32009 0.328647 0.372865
45 Inde -0.134587 -0.014696 0.254162 0.31413 0.359807
46 Bulgarie 0.278113 0.290812 0.358694 0.327278 0.347659
47 Afrique du Sud -0.192079 -0.204966 0.303549 0.28477 0.268797
48 Portugal 0.433862 0.4937 0.255319 0.26363 0.258555
49 Costa Rica 0.158575 0.093993 0.135131 0.231586 0.237988
50 Argentine -0.496513 -0.502072 0.462111 0.360496 0.232335
51 Uruguay -0.330617 -0.349791 0.220677 0.177011 0.207869
52 Turquie 0.287393 0.378481 0.133999 0.150909 0.175726
53 Colombie -0.234596 -0.194463 0.0953318 0.11439 0.144356
54 Émirats arabes unis -0.090032 -0.362895 0.124122 0.0911202 0.128674
55 Grèce -0.210378 -0.167862 0.113201 0.106201 0.125884
56 Panama 0.710402 -0.558959 0.0789054 0.124958 0.119062
57 Koweit -1.49314 -0.836979 0.25958 0.235139 0.11607
58 Kazakhstan -0.961147 -1.00924 0.0243757 0.157371 0.0883664
59 Australie -0.816851 -0.846322 0.0971997 0.146237 0.0863035
60 Liban 0.107992 0.177455 0.11624 0.0486427 0.0803256
61 Chili -0.499261 -0.532363 0.0316813 0.0611241 0.0443139
62 Trinité-et-Tobago -0.219598 -0.174918 -0.0506048
63 Géorgie -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.13572 -0.104348 -0.0587891
64 Oman -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.297732 -0.0404026 -0.0609077
65 Jordanie -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.0543591 -0.101439 -0.149852
66 Iran -0.934617 -0.157821 -0.158038
67 Jamaïque -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.285952 -0.258965 -0.239734
68 Kirghizistan -0.430339 -0.33118 -0.286814
69 Tunisie 0.16411 0.214778 -0.323836 -0.323494 -0.287626
70 Macédoine -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.39802 -0.379236 -0.290303
71 Indonésie -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.382548 -0.359668 -0.305644
72 Egypte -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.376617 -0.346329 -0.319753
73 El Salvador -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.518145 -0.491815 -0.336211
74 République dominicaine -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.422355 -0.382253 -0.363374
75 Cuba -0.274702 -0.379871
76 Moldavie -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.388113 -0.475939 -0.464417
77 Ouganda -0.379853 -0.383244 -0.512514
78 Zambie -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.219831 -0.367271 -0.514087
79 Sénégal -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.498182 -0.583953 -0.518687
80 Maurice -0.666129 -0.638339 -0.579654
81 Pérou -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.645699 -0.565693 -0.598962
82 Guatemala -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.555447 -0.57015 -0.616793
83 Viêt-Nam -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.707104 -0.669703 -0.623084
84 Azerbaïdjan -1.44358 -1.7818 -0.674689 -0.650166 -0.654587
85 Venezuela -0.942948 -0.667168 -0.655229
86 Paraguay -0.982503 -1.10231 -0.63956 -0.767192 -0.676455
87 Honduras -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.844833 -0.765916 -0.744556
88 Syrie -0.633554 -0.744963
89 Kenya -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.690631 -0.705736 -0.747829
90 Mali -1.29791 -0.99785 -0.767797
91 Malawi -0.438195 -0.468412 -0.768715
92 Albanie -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.896511 -0.90769 -0.781571
93 Mongolie -1.67769 -1.55696 -0.851358 -0.767706 -0.78801
94 Algérie -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.01136 -0.937221 -0.811671
95 Zimbabwe -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.697917 -0.707958 -0.811801
96 Ouzbékistan -0.873889 -0.895987 -0.847152
97 Libéria -0.719266 -0.98089 -0.854269
98 Pakistan -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.922811 -0.935143 -0.859978
99 Maroc -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.877951 -0.861004 -0.89235
100 Congo, République du -0.675039 -0.730753 -1.03802 -1.07835 -0.898092
101 Sri Lanka -0.530163 -0.369437 -1.05527 -0.972538 -0.901589
102 Équateur -1.06674 -1.30875 -0.768335 -0.950771 -0.933232
103 Mauritanie -0.833422 -0.963114
104 Libye -1.26778 -0.965428
105 Yémen -1.34438 -0.912604 -0.757001 -0.97195
106 Cameroun -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.0069 -0.814567 -1.01371
107 Tanzanie -0.919298 -1.03347 -0.879252 -0.97857 -1.01705
108 Bolivie -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.06538 -1.06344 -1.07744
109 Tadjikistan -1.17436 -1.03731 -1.10384
110 Côte d'Ivoire -1.05279 -1.17654 -0.965066 -0.987537 -1.12772
111 Ghana -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.04762 -1.21682 -1.15388
112 Turkménistan -1.48447 -1.27173 -1.19506
113 Gabon -1.06145 -1.36159 -1.22477
114 Mozambique -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.18598 -1.18114 -1.24908
115 Laos -1.21682 -1.19835 -1.25108
116 Ethiopie -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.31886 -1.30394 -1.27445
117 Angola -1.25745 -1.16876 -1.3177
118 Nicaragua -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.31615 -1.34285 -1.33756
119 Cambodge -0.904026 -0.723043 -1.47629 -1.44677 -1.37692
120 Soudan -1.873 -1.84461 -1.53738 -1.63482 -1.45787
121 Madagascar -0.823322 -0.820193 -1.49269 -1.47536 -1.45882
122 Guinée -2.17828 -1.22835 -1.44215 -1.51688
123 Bangladesh -1.17559 -1.76105 -1.77822 -1.71442
124 Nigeria -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.60088 -1.73247 -1.90268
125 Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée -1.75799 -2.00821
126 Togo -0.671987 -0.462205
127 Namibie -0.328879 -0.381863
128 Botswana -0.574288 -0.790862
129 Belgique 0.951062 0.90581