The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japon 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.61516
2 Corée du Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 2.37378
3 Suisse 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.33787
4 Singapour 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.25069
5 Allemagne 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89207
6 Hong-Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.47134
7 République tchèque 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.42049
8 États-Unis 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.3899
9 Royaume-Uni 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.36113
10 Hongrie 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.24403
11 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.17832
12 Slovaquie 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.16945
13 Italie 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.13343
14 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.13204
15 Malaisie 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.12618
16 Irlande 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.10564
17 Chine 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 1.00689
18 Belgique 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.978514
19 Mexique 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.75823
20 Pologne 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.672875
21 Danemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.662894
22 Estonie 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.545405
23 Norvège 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.518245
24 Croatie 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.491664
25 Espagne 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.431715
26 Bélarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.426
27 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.389823
28 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.368803
29 Émirats arabes unis 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.304849
30 Lituanie 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.252274
31 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.213795
32 Inde 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.141007
33 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.140373
34 Bulgarie 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.139368
35 Serbie 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.114576
36 Russie 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.049962
37 Turquie 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.0317636
38 Lettonie 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.0284908
39 Tunisie 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.00202402
40 Grèce 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.0404171
41 Brésil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.0835801
42 Indonésie -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0852673
43 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 -0.116362
44 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.159627
45 Colombie -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.19239
46 Jordanie 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.221577
47 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.274391
48 Afrique du Sud 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.295213
49 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.382714
50 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.395968
51 Maurice -0.40707
52 Kirghizistan -0.457679
53 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.465951
54 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.472886
55 Moldavie 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.481255
56 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.501094
57 République dominicaine -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.501275
58 Macédoine -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.606872
59 Géorgie -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.634878
60 Jamaïque -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.694666
61 Suède 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 -0.714396
62 Sénégal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.746684
63 Cambodge -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.750174
64 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.781491
65 Namibie -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.834151
66 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.845389
67 Albanie 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.871937
68 Argentine -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.882143
69 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.899662
70 Maroc -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.944238
71 Australie -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.972731
72 Algérie -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.99361
73 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.06909
74 Pérou -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.0828
75 Mali -1.12138
76 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.12468
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13478
78 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.13883
79 Ethiopie -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.16391
80 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.18288
81 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -1.22746
82 Tanzanie -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.23583
83 Équateur -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.31897
84 Mongolie -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.67118
85 Mauritanie -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.34538
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thaïlande 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yémen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Roumanie 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Arabie Saoudite -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Congo, République du -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Viêt-Nam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Congo, République démocratique du -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Koweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finlande 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Soudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Autriche 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syrie -0.670493
107 Liban 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Cameroun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birmanie -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinité-et-Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Pays-Bas 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkménistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambie -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Ouzbékistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinée -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Côte d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivie -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaïdjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovénie 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422