The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
1 Japon 2.32645 2.39976 2.36731 2.38974 2.39134
2 Suisse 2.04334 2.1349 2.08125 2.10865 2.20354
3 Allemagne 2.13913 2.16696 2.17723 2.19761 2.19821
4 Suède 2.02929 2.06501 2.08118 2.1338 2.16649
5 Autriche 1.81925 1.89238 1.86741 1.92154 1.94269
6 Royaume-Uni 1.86948 1.84502 1.8197 1.85354 1.8885
7 Finlande 1.57979 1.69034 1.65903 1.7338 1.8112
8 Italie 1.71372 1.73112 1.70263 1.6687 1.71993
9 Danemark 1.48869 1.50483 1.56451 1.62226 1.6333
10 France 1.71191 1.69556 1.62 1.64251 1.58344
11 États-Unis 1.68473 1.62452 1.52115 1.53479 1.50659
12 Belgique 1.45513 1.47377 1.50163 1.48931 1.45983
13 Irlande 1.34901 1.34749 1.44454 1.47318 1.4374
14 Pays-Bas 1.25089 1.23651 1.25419 1.256 1.20143
15 Espagne 1.11757 1.14212 1.14524 1.19786 1.19007
16 Israël 1.18827 1.17349 1.09227 1.17841 1.15976
17 Norvège 0.866243 0.955728 1.01949 1.03702 1.03133
18 Corée du Sud 0.903033 0.919086 0.946263 0.834166 0.898145
19 Hong-Kong 0.950709 0.942748 0.949503 0.898704 0.882933
20 Hongrie 0.690656 0.739834 0.847892 0.833217 0.808804
21 Roumanie 0.780271 0.758278 0.804159 0.806016 0.798893
22 Mexique 0.465516 0.649492 0.720238 0.71601 0.766842
23 Singapour 0.703919 0.623209 0.671827 0.648095 0.722376
24 Pologne 0.707914 0.803996 0.80849 0.791207 0.70377
25 Canada 0.702436 0.712579 0.689466 0.774507 0.703285
26 Portugal 0.759677 0.725108 0.75562 0.670288 0.651649
27 Bulgarie 0.561423 0.579827 0.558906 0.569171 0.645641
28 Brésil 0.345727 0.369739 0.33526 0.339519 0.418308
29 Jordanie 0.518866 0.461162 0.519375 0.571932 0.329789
30 El Salvador 0.294898 0.472801 0.319616 0.296832 0.322887
31 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.529792 0.417875 0.34395 0.355489 0.318537
32 Chine 0.147123 0.134055 0.246918 0.234761 0.254205
33 Panama 0.097218 -0.148231 -0.097236 0.01048 0.231381
34 Inde 0.200489 0.199895 0.126991 0.134137 0.229328
35 Liban 0.557421 0.460734 0.402064 0.259094 0.222896
36 Grèce 0.279589 0.289679 0.219048 0.095416 0.152017
37 Trinité-et-Tobago 0.094595 -0.077639 -0.024489 0.21133 0.144432
38 Turquie 0.118645 0.219343 0.270537 0.158364 0.143942
39 Uruguay 0.398713 0.404771 0.343907 0.208406 0.133127
40 Qatar 0.507998 0.329535 0.292962 0.271141 0.101576
41 Malaisie 0.023944 -0.013715 -0.05365 -0.043857 0.077114
42 Madagascar -1.39296 -1.29 -1.29093 -1.29473 0.075262
43 Argentine 0.02127 0.064141 0.042609 0.094958 0.064197
44 Thaïlande -0.196221 -0.165517 -0.059027 -0.058231 0.028856
45 Arabie Saoudite -0.779577 -0.22444 -0.209904 -0.027672 0.010843
46 Oman -0.861732 -0.812367 -0.064174 0.288311 -0.011874
47 Tunisie 0.064443 0.128234 0.130735 -0.025771 -0.030626
48 Costa Rica -0.158359 -0.123305 -0.00306 -0.003063 -0.07688
49 Philippines -0.33671 -0.327704 -0.332234 -0.211546 -0.139151
50 Guatemala -0.110733 -0.124289 -0.114968 -0.220272 -0.140966
51 Koweit 0.10631 -0.187616 0.32521 0.220934 -0.142634
52 Australie -0.079455 -0.085689 -0.108906 -0.067428 -0.168113
53 Colombie -0.04428 -0.190655 -0.178329 -0.108131 -0.183715
54 Albanie -0.336359 -0.229183 -0.281952 -0.264478 -0.197794
55 Cambodge 0.645039 0.322833 0.411623 -0.085926 -0.221593
56 Émirats arabes unis -0.085901 -0.11452 -0.011708 0.062544 -0.222188
57 Jamaïque -0.059726 -0.340469 -0.237738 -0.257262 -0.23057
58 Afrique du Sud -0.100059 -0.254265 -0.307473 -0.348081 -0.24657
59 Venezuela -0.224144 -0.142738 -0.310206 -0.20186 -0.249176
60 Mozambique -0.19087 -0.051954 -0.345335 -0.374334 -0.280503
61 République dominicaine -0.151004 -0.110589 -0.130617 -0.248173 -0.298144
62 Pérou -0.293198 -0.380444 -0.24436 -0.270606 -0.3134
63 Maroc -0.197346 -0.334159 -0.299073 -0.418674 -0.384117
64 Laos -0.29169 -0.400541 -0.588246 -0.278497 -0.438861
65 Nicaragua -0.512901 -0.238517 -0.440161 -0.480994 -0.441603
66 Chili -0.27313 -0.470722 -0.565224 -0.499843 -0.452327
67 Sri Lanka -0.449493 -0.630882 -0.49977 -0.620797 -0.482596
68 Mongolie -0.48517 -0.345683 -0.186588 -0.348805 -0.502122
69 Honduras -0.678372 -0.616688 -0.669397 -0.681549 -0.518993
70 Egypte -0.370879 -0.47398 -0.399866 -0.451679 -0.535157
71 Syrie -0.282584 -0.41874 -0.424702 -0.508874 -0.540398
72 Pakistan -0.28839 -0.383374 -0.490167 -0.638552 -0.547604
73 Indonésie -1.19011 -1.11041 -0.8393 -0.703247 -0.592783
74 Zimbabwe -0.662716 -0.638385 -0.740906 -0.69104 -0.604088
75 Algérie -1.22432 -0.787639 -0.292231 -0.257457 -0.649656
76 Zambie -0.517998 -0.416354 -0.456881 -0.67636 -0.700076
77 Bangladesh -0.649575 -0.561619 -0.486923 -0.743294 -0.761861
78 Sénégal -0.609679 -0.710488 -0.726655 -0.637763 -0.788705
79 Bolivie -0.942779 -0.895863 -0.804475 -0.956995 -0.864784
80 Viêt-Nam -0.771785 -0.984498 -1.02124 -1.02634 -0.921859
81 Ethiopie -0.969597 -0.812948 -0.964332 -0.971688 -0.932032
82 Équateur -1.2186 -1.20318 -1.00988 -0.967277 -0.93695
83 Paraguay -0.857056 -0.798989 -0.889779 -0.88285 -0.957365
84 Soudan -1.08179 -0.933388 -1.12616 -1.18061 -0.97173
85 Kenya -0.921978 -0.858609 -0.973226 -1.03404 -0.977025
86 Birmanie -0.811849 -0.984295 -1.13781 -1.09078 -1.05308
87 Yémen 0.062197 0.141871 -0.908052 -0.978779 -1.07125
88 Tanzanie -0.922606 -1.01029 -1.21869 -1.15103 -1.09958
89 Ghana -0.99126 -1.16508 -1.16574 -1.13832 -1.10949
90 Congo, République démocratique du -1.30384 -1.45864 -1.24313 -1.20444 -1.14496
91 Iran -1.23982 -1.33492 -1.19445 -1.21948 -1.28483
92 Togo -1.37642 -1.40066 -1.47951 -1.42253 -1.30555
93 Côte d'Ivoire -1.40121 -1.51558 -1.37116 -1.2969 -1.34105
94 Gabon -1.39269 -1.51237 -1.49476 -1.22518 -1.34855
95 Mauritanie -0.939791 -0.993936 -1.29351 -1.30447 -1.46739
96 Congo, République du -1.59555 -1.56447 -1.35371 -1.48802 -1.50959
97 Guinée -1.46967 -1.82425 -1.72938 -1.78419 -1.51676
98 Angola -1.822 -1.26181 -1.6952 -1.27093 -1.67635
99 Cameroun -1.74781 -1.76979 -1.77215 -1.72539 -1.76896
100 Nigeria -2.00898 -1.73325 -1.64319 -1.72468 -2.01211