The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
1 Japon 2.62482 2.53902 2.48434 2.51283 2.53454
2 Allemagne 2.33549 2.25612 2.20218 2.26714 2.26168
3 Suisse 2.2797 2.22311 2.20498 2.20565 2.18502
4 Royaume-Uni 1.80903 1.82057 1.83921 1.95509 1.97386
5 Suède 2.15152 2.10031 1.96355 1.9692 1.97269
6 États-Unis 1.83305 1.82767 1.81703 1.85634 1.86251
7 Finlande 1.93772 1.90875 1.89548 1.89805 1.85628
8 Autriche 2.03268 1.91867 1.84365 1.80792 1.79399
9 Danemark 1.52388 1.51091 1.49822 1.58105 1.58813
10 France 1.60763 1.58323 1.54483 1.56021 1.58127
11 Singapour 1.08779 0.983781 1.09548 1.32845 1.55217
12 République tchèque 1.42569 1.40372 1.43721 1.48955 1.5289
13 Italie 1.63958 1.55468 1.47994 1.49433 1.48962
14 Irlande 1.34091 1.37233 1.49523 1.39659 1.44934
15 Belgique 1.43024 1.46882 1.48359 1.45589 1.44647
16 Slovénie 1.3489 1.34636 1.306 1.34999 1.39814
17 Pays-Bas 1.33851 1.28338 1.2877 1.27953 1.31034
18 Slovaquie 1.21663 1.23372 1.2153 1.20047 1.24483
19 Israël 1.07941 1.11492 1.14711 1.15445 1.22578
20 Corée du Sud 1.02663 1.14944 1.03141 1.10914 1.19698
21 Espagne 1.19306 1.17464 1.09293 1.05449 1.10231
22 Mexique 0.713387 0.742549 0.698187 0.78642 0.948962
23 Pologne 0.752045 0.801098 0.830855 0.814231 0.902565
24 Canada 0.891053 0.842988 0.933069 0.853475 0.882912
25 Hongrie 0.916166 0.92667 0.876291 0.780762 0.866768
26 Norvège 0.761752 0.829814 0.928205 0.840261 0.771729
27 Croatie 0.74655 0.727172 0.677189 0.632074 0.665432
28 Malaisie 0.330865 0.454003 0.440481 0.471149 0.64597
29 Brésil 0.529039 0.609912 0.63263 0.63173 0.602188
30 Bélarus 0.607991 0.471432 0.645948 0.607993 0.558912
31 Russie 0.297075 0.469322 0.593549 0.600178 0.556283
32 Portugal 0.403863 0.420509 0.461456 0.448254 0.54534
33 Estonie 0.545415 0.514904 0.547724 0.474429 0.502223
34 Ukraine 0.568178 0.5933 0.647333 0.562931 0.484355
35 Roumanie 0.48008 0.467421 0.491754 0.464376 0.474142
36 Hong-Kong 0.471498 0.489159 0.326658 0.341021 0.466488
37 Bulgarie 0.34916 0.501917 0.483749 0.450126 0.442311
38 Thaïlande 0.08527 0.170387 0.14429 0.249545 0.371248
39 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.580926 0.492681 0.528119 0.456929 0.358552
40 Chine 0.221438 0.328308 0.254555 0.233022 0.307929
41 Lituanie 0.262575 0.282998 0.328792 0.30198 0.279794
42 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.33429 0.34167 0.359696 0.291932 0.27661
43 Jordanie -0.028269 0.060741 0.156842 0.199525 0.225435
44 Géorgie 0.37478 0.20617 0.172483 0.238245 0.211482
45 Inde 0.034912 0.101682 0.118969 0.196844 0.210091
46 Afrique du Sud 0.172478 0.252567 0.233557 0.266418 0.195963
47 Lettonie 0.247579 0.24158 0.265352 0.314476 0.181396
48 Grèce 0.029853 0.151935 0.179631 0.146522 0.159244
49 Uruguay 0.281436 0.186327 0.192193 0.150169 0.151318
50 Colombie -0.052715 0.003091 -0.033018 0.065018 0.130317
51 Panama -0.035657 -0.014804 0.022614 0.033458 0.107499
52 Turquie 0.003711 0.099291 0.065294 0.08533 0.096253
53 Argentine -0.01855 0.012858 0.063963 0.061027 0.067484
54 Liban -0.042066 0.014512 0.002854 -0.105666 0.009897
55 Trinité-et-Tobago 0.049676 0.01063 0.1096 0.080107 -0.013316
56 Macédoine 0.167876 0.132217 0.07125 -0.023729 -0.014313
57 Venezuela -0.082202 -0.131131 0.01211 0.168625 -0.020923
58 Australie 0.027905 -0.00787 0.052213 -0.033744 -0.031123
59 Costa Rica -0.259614 -0.11906 -0.143079 -0.11122 -0.046819
60 Philippines -0.264709 -0.193581 -0.29749 -0.278829 -0.051153
61 El Salvador -0.191735 -0.111639 -0.014612 -0.030598 -0.077975
62 Moldavie 0.209032 0.180126 0.087567 -0.067187 -0.079771
63 Azerbaïdjan 0.295336 0.440148 0.344791 0.14542 -0.094196
64 Arabie Saoudite -0.004363 -0.142044 0.245782 0.133691 -0.104429
65 Indonésie -0.386413 -0.263329 -0.237833 -0.178447 -0.118525
66 Chili -0.236143 -0.22503 -0.123718 -0.122233 -0.120653
67 Guatemala -0.09217 -0.183695 -0.234772 -0.23064 -0.221969
68 Kazakhstan 0.320195 0.170617 0.133409 -0.153616 -0.260106
69 Albanie -0.377064 -0.404282 -0.43934 -0.42106 -0.276055
70 Mozambique -0.831413 -0.569856 -0.642561 -0.134453 -0.308848
71 Tunisie -0.454045 -0.521211 -0.487393 -0.371227 -0.335308
72 Egypte -0.46767 -0.535714 -0.51622 -0.409572 -0.367532
73 Koweit -0.637936 -0.456562 -0.548267 -0.517091 -0.386139
74 Émirats arabes unis -0.41129 -0.242739 -0.291874 -0.306447 -0.407031
75 Botswana -0.411647
76 Zimbabwe -0.243137 -0.366698 -0.507259 -0.538359 -0.450373
77 Pérou -0.425053 -0.453811 -0.519939 -0.452241 -0.454346
78 Sri Lanka -0.818788 -0.782064 -0.70323 -0.60947 -0.549153
79 République dominicaine -0.469361 -0.453478 -0.558683 -0.7221 -0.55851
80 Qatar -0.606565 -0.709645 -0.67805 -0.829927 -0.566883
81 Kenya -0.555286 -0.667525 -0.662768 -0.601449 -0.605449
82 Paraguay -0.645988 -0.682574 -0.533852 -0.50479 -0.616288
83 Honduras -0.716076 -0.695074 -0.756757 -0.688814 -0.618441
84 Oman -0.498061 -0.685378 -0.518991 -0.615451 -0.620443
85 Ouzbékistan -0.329384 -0.257701 -0.129301 -0.502809 -0.620734
86 Maroc -0.768595 -0.720285 -0.786999 -0.717755 -0.656
87 Viêt-Nam -0.885671 -0.841634 -0.784948 -0.765394 -0.709704
88 Mongolie -0.635697 -0.671654 -0.72326 -0.818503 -0.725388
89 Mauritanie -1.32609 -1.13999 -1.13432 -0.758452 -0.730751
90 Jamaïque -0.740573 -0.679477 -0.605535 -0.673412 -0.737476
91 Sénégal -1.14286 -0.839209 -0.973323 -0.87581 -0.793548
92 Namibie -0.811299
93 Bolivie -0.670547 -0.761067 -0.630502 -0.770524 -0.812611
94 Pakistan -0.831704 -0.81523 -0.825743 -0.799512 -0.835216
95 Nicaragua -0.759552 -0.658495 -0.713839 -0.793998 -0.839711
96 Équateur -1.06839 -1.01785 -0.97281 -0.888551 -0.841814
97 Algérie -0.72511 -0.814718 -0.802829 -0.741165 -0.843424
98 Iran -0.854963 -0.731991 -0.760938 -0.816195 -0.943975
99 Togo -1.31135 -1.12366 -0.993679 -1.23014 -0.983632
100 Zambie -0.874625 -0.95923 -0.846865 -0.960927 -0.990725
101 Turkménistan -0.795773 -0.613978 -0.792971 -0.815293 -0.995334
102 Bangladesh -1.06387 -1.06811 -1.08508 -1.07312 -0.997463
103 Syrie -1.08399 -1.05905 -1.0725 -1.05652 -1.02673
104 Laos -0.54968 -0.647999 -0.57976 -0.806781 -1.05256
105 Ethiopie -1.20396 -1.33563 -1.34347 -1.08673 -1.09717
106 Cambodge -0.931056 -1.05982 -1.36686 -1.22901 -1.15353
107 Côte d'Ivoire -1.2875 -1.37382 -1.26317 -1.30078 -1.156
108 Madagascar -1.14395 -1.12751 -1.159 -1.1058 -1.16221
109 Gabon -1.25007 -1.5865 -1.55086 -1.14666 -1.18934
110 Tanzanie -1.31053 -1.21963 -1.29562 -1.15902 -1.27194
111 Congo, République démocratique du -1.32809 -1.38505 -1.33985 -1.52529 -1.27315
112 Ghana -1.36653 -1.27141 -1.23054 -1.34344 -1.29443
113 Birmanie -1.25981 -1.2446 -1.24911 -1.15924 -1.30999
114 Congo, République du -0.845544 -1.29766 -1.24502 -1.45647 -1.42348
115 Soudan -0.97249 -0.996098 -1.21251 -1.15646 -1.44871
116 Yémen -1.33012 -1.25966 -1.50222 -1.60913 -1.51089
117 Angola -1.75814 -1.79175 -1.60166 -1.61325 -1.67367
118 Guinée -1.34948 -1.64311 -1.76458 -1.80391 -1.70685
119 Cameroun -1.6158 -1.73434 -1.83434 -1.81816 -1.77589
120 Nigeria -2.10242 -2.15015 -2.10267 -2.0675 -2.02891