The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1 Japon 2.52662 2.61165 2.45075 2.47862 2.46767
2 Allemagne 2.23828 2.2377 2.19574 2.20445 2.15958
3 Suisse 2.24412 2.19269 2.12764 2.05783 2.06907
4 Suède 1.98924 2.0381 2.09665 2.08697 2.02943
5 Finlande 1.85446 1.86151 1.80769 1.81559 1.80046
6 Royaume-Uni 1.9704 1.99456 1.94824 1.89629 1.77065
7 Autriche 1.73102 1.72614 1.76393 1.81965 1.74605
8 États-Unis 1.85189 1.87944 1.85046 1.76594 1.74324
9 Singapour 1.51534 1.62663 1.53699 1.63902 1.5652
10 République tchèque 1.52518 1.56631 1.55938 1.53388 1.54784
11 Slovénie 1.45239 1.42297 1.42282 1.55648 1.54609
12 France 1.58792 1.60699 1.60873 1.55541 1.54456
13 Danemark 1.56798 1.54904 1.50739 1.50872 1.4818
14 Corée du Sud 1.23895 1.29563 1.31421 1.27258 1.41097
15 Italie 1.52985 1.48036 1.37375 1.3861 1.39804
16 Irlande 1.45836 1.55977 1.62751 1.51601 1.3506
17 Slovaquie 1.2636 1.23843 1.20213 1.20926 1.28788
18 Belgique 1.40065 1.37079 1.37738 1.33257 1.27927
19 Pays-Bas 1.23203 1.15767 1.21646 1.18126 1.18347
20 Hongrie 0.992979 1.06683 1.11232 1.15856 1.17404
21 Israël 1.19289 1.10809 1.04926 1.1044 1.0958
22 Espagne 1.14719 1.15073 1.04465 1.04322 1.0347
23 Mexique 0.905129 0.958907 1.02195 0.978828 0.986745
24 Pologne 0.939812 0.941757 0.897007 0.899269 0.967138
25 Bélarus 0.842052 0.722964 0.723122 0.832963 0.858138
26 Canada 0.864428 0.89244 0.919277 0.862716 0.848054
27 Malaisie 0.615196 0.734542 0.753853 0.854059 0.795607
28 Norvège 0.712675 0.66816 0.758139 0.775049 0.757271
29 Croatie 0.631126 0.638124 0.645311 0.681113 0.735727
30 Estonie 0.584589 0.498964 0.515964 0.562663 0.674146
31 Portugal 0.554852 0.539252 0.488495 0.559365 0.627309
32 Ukraine 0.458828 0.475434 0.488237 0.551859 0.595211
33 Hong-Kong 0.617995 0.588883 0.549568 0.567609 0.574415
34 Russie 0.580501 0.515668 0.65224 0.568381 0.557305
35 Chine 0.378568 0.41801 0.442061 0.452979 0.474971
36 Thaïlande 0.393173 0.435905 0.418108 0.446709 0.463214
37 Brésil 0.512734 0.450486 0.42281 0.399357 0.450112
38 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.302574 0.242517 0.210007 0.365334 0.429642
39 Lettonie 0.174325 0.180464 0.311667 0.309156 0.427594
40 Roumanie 0.441733 0.459015 0.373828 0.320218 0.42384
41 Bulgarie 0.344109 0.384387 0.365341 0.309366 0.34386
42 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.255177 0.192239 0.25454 0.287348 0.334674
43 Lituanie 0.192432 0.161984 0.164931 0.196164 0.309178
44 Turquie 0.103766 0.05963 0.176945 0.177247 0.252509
45 Grèce 0.205573 0.190595 0.221214 0.210503 0.233397
46 Afrique du Sud 0.102827 0.055371 0.128366 0.094685 0.16654
47 Inde 0.285222 0.216505 0.176804 0.152537 0.158145
48 Liban 0.081991 0.013337 -0.056157 -0.017576 0.113553
49 Colombie 0.154886 0.165579 0.141137 0.108143 0.108932
50 Panama 0.131178 0.081602 0.033435 0.025462 0.036751
51 Argentine 0.065941 -0.048438 -0.022571 0.002533 0.03593
52 Trinité-et-Tobago 0.058879 0.096957 0.071435 0.003869 0.033114
53 Qatar -0.488146 -0.309149 -0.418974 0.1045 0.024745
54 Uruguay 0.11815 0.023785 0.096728 -0.045061 0.017114
55 Costa Rica -0.057797 0.102606 0.010613 -0.004518 0.006471
56 Indonésie -0.006918 -0.011234 -0.015577 -0.079228 -0.03753
57 Jordanie 0.259856 -0.130406 -0.113429 0.012317 -0.044752
58 Moldavie -0.058476 -0.019165 0.042335 -0.019115 -0.071912
59 Arabie Saoudite -0.047194 -0.054635 0.104983 0.155848 -0.074557
60 El Salvador -0.09812 -0.125807 -0.102685 -0.094959 -0.080838
61 Émirats arabes unis -0.447912 -0.312063 -0.157405 -0.090661 -0.085822
62 Macédoine 0.004857 -0.069498 -0.172163 -0.062273 -0.107521
63 Philippines -0.067078 -0.025559 -0.005396 -0.0344 -0.119035
64 Venezuela -0.136609 -0.07666 -0.062459 -0.134651 -0.147508
65 Chili -0.097452 -0.089827 -0.069191 -0.150324 -0.150391
66 Tunisie -0.176462 -0.17907 -0.316525 -0.279088 -0.159174
67 Géorgie 0.217142 0.138305 0.178932 -0.17425 -0.18585
68 Australie -0.06647 -0.073102 -0.038353 -0.218672 -0.213502
69 Albanie -0.047386 -0.01742 -0.02384 -0.128714 -0.245883
70 Kazakhstan -0.296089 -0.213565 -0.102081 -0.271761 -0.249486
71 Guatemala -0.314302 -0.397476 -0.408678 -0.353519 -0.260139
72 Koweit -0.407039 -0.300179 -0.156717 -0.11916 -0.268955
73 Jamaïque -0.616227 -0.636068 -0.538303 -0.294213 -0.307798
74 Egypte -0.432688 -0.40861 -0.368092 -0.351883 -0.313441
75 République dominicaine -0.502652 -0.541407 -0.469881 -0.300896 -0.332228
76 Zimbabwe -0.48607 -0.53834 -0.343785 -0.373302 -0.395862
77 Ouzbékistan -0.819991 -0.701587 -0.463409 -0.453 -0.433318
78 Maroc -0.703032 -0.676159 -0.76984 -0.648625 -0.48776
79 Paraguay -0.633126 -0.601299 -0.566719 -0.603935 -0.516896
80 Sri Lanka -0.575275 -0.618172 -0.62927 -0.59254 -0.543395
81 Pérou -0.504695 -0.537658 -0.514557 -0.648479 -0.579638
82 Kenya -0.513933 -0.653247 -0.575552 -0.701251 -0.6198
83 Viêt-Nam -0.633173 -0.612566 -0.630272 -0.653033 -0.632908
84 Honduras -0.730843 -0.784403 -0.656674 -0.566724 -0.676137
85 Syrie -1.04357 -1.08415 -0.941886 -0.86175 -0.749744
86 Azerbaïdjan -0.582499 -0.473538 -0.36504 -0.595619 -0.769416
87 Équateur -0.871608 -0.878596 -0.856247 -0.846191 -0.77456
88 Angola -1.71443 -2.04759 -2.06924 -0.705732 -0.787959
89 Pakistan -0.809969 -0.689205 -0.751032 -0.770235 -0.789144
90 Oman -0.947925 -0.932646 -0.745175 -0.540399 -0.792679
91 Namibie -0.753271 -0.663161 -0.554921 -0.655761 -0.805754
92 Sénégal -0.888731 -0.931708 -0.972446 -0.872446 -0.809369
93 Nicaragua -0.75545 -0.805578 -0.807707 -0.763565 -0.820232
94 Botswana -0.826433 -0.686412 -0.818465 -0.708473 -0.845061
95 Togo -0.560002 -0.471307 -0.676074 -0.758799 -0.856163
96 Bolivie -0.881527 -0.836185 -0.797802 -0.919345 -0.856918
97 Laos -0.928956 -0.789641 -0.843126 -1.01988 -0.891806
98 Iran -0.875579 -0.837151 -0.853785 -0.881575 -0.898796
99 Turkménistan -1.1145 -0.943435 -0.952721 -0.940244 -0.915679
100 Mongolie -0.735884 -0.746776 -0.681431 -0.865264 -0.924295
101 Zambie -1.10573 -0.99658 -1.09653 -0.934754 -0.925683
102 Ethiopie -0.99011 -0.933984 -0.93631 -1.1606 -0.937456
103 Algérie -0.906108 -0.808618 -0.875592 -1.11 -1.11468
104 Cambodge -1.04926 -1.04947 -1.02579 -1.14921 -1.17042
105 Tanzanie -1.23882 -1.27368 -1.14524 -1.19819 -1.17276
106 Mozambique -0.754133 -0.949386 -1.20899 -1.34734 -1.1731
107 Bangladesh -0.995853 -1.03815 -1.1201 -1.23386 -1.17652
108 Madagascar -1.08675 -1.15522 -1.20383 -1.20019 -1.18539
109 Côte d'Ivoire -1.08336 -1.14553 -1.23738 -1.27946 -1.2167
110 Mauritanie -0.797881 -0.951643 -0.976701 -1.53823 -1.22737
111 Guinée -1.76285 -1.72383 -1.59046 -1.3383 -1.23361
112 Birmanie -1.29669 -1.18614 -1.23973 -1.3014 -1.23916
113 Gabon -0.920493 -1.26716 -1.6291 -0.956786 -1.31646
114 Congo, République démocratique du -1.1108 -1.10486 -1.1042 -1.16123 -1.34175
115 Ghana -1.17101 -1.13735 -1.24972 -1.35863 -1.38268
116 Yémen -1.57309 -1.48922 -1.44892 -1.56273 -1.54465
117 Congo, République du -1.25988 -1.30159 -1.35403 -1.41438 -1.56017
118 Cameroun -1.76353 -1.53014 -1.45477 -1.55106 -1.81234
119 Soudan -1.48732 -1.4476 -1.5408 -1.57514 -1.82539
120 Nigeria -1.99444 -1.91639 -2.05963 -2.40836 -2.32188