The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
1 Japon 2.40412 2.34652 2.23856 2.17852 2.11934
2 Suisse 2.05479 1.99311 1.92034 1.91828 1.91575
3 Allemagne 2.11126 2.01485 1.95078 1.91653 1.88894
4 Suède 1.94426 1.91852 1.89436 1.80167 1.75419
5 Autriche 1.7452 1.70293 1.68159 1.69369 1.68617
6 Finlande 1.77725 1.77327 1.75639 1.71426 1.67979
7 Singapour 1.46932 1.55653 1.49843 1.57804 1.58854
8 Corée du Sud 1.52046 1.54709 1.52745 1.49631 1.57505
9 Royaume-Uni 1.72653 1.7096 1.67044 1.61184 1.57193
10 République tchèque 1.55209 1.52445 1.5676 1.56901 1.55689
11 États-Unis 1.66414 1.62483 1.58866 1.53293 1.49428
12 France 1.50134 1.47143 1.46951 1.46536 1.45099
13 Hongrie 1.2364 1.30326 1.35814 1.3362 1.39419
14 Slovénie 1.49585 1.44105 1.39082 1.41407 1.38479
15 Slovaquie 1.27784 1.20851 1.26737 1.271 1.35695
16 Italie 1.34865 1.29984 1.3267 1.35289 1.34589
17 Irlande 1.37041 1.29819 1.35691 1.37428 1.33093
18 Danemark 1.44935 1.40257 1.33589 1.30232 1.29129
19 Belgique 1.23122 1.26407 1.22398 1.18347 1.1659
20 Pays-Bas 1.09357 1.09737 1.10431 1.04799 1.09691
21 Israël 1.04361 1.08661 1.21518 1.19138 1.09395
22 Pologne 0.968439 0.978851 1.0255 1.02992 1.03324
23 Espagne 1.02466 1.02372 1.01644 1.02007 1.01742
24 Mexique 1.10303 1.06339 1.08324 0.995923 1.00189
25 Croatie 0.787117 0.842586 0.806099 0.853091 0.926024
26 Chine 0.587449 0.632635 0.715732 0.753508 0.774908
27 Thaïlande 0.433048 0.491304 0.510058 0.606687 0.736971
28 Portugal 0.638432 0.637016 0.677586 0.6909 0.706405
29 Estonie 0.694548 0.713069 0.710075 0.716777 0.704934
30 Canada 0.811793 0.789332 0.741557 0.711973 0.703779
31 Roumanie 0.493627 0.673123 0.731384 0.685378 0.698277
32 Bélarus 0.856248 0.682706 0.690402 0.668625 0.675162
33 Norvège 0.716319 0.660506 0.563568 0.588332 0.635977
34 Lettonie 0.532376 0.549968 0.61794 0.60544 0.626987
35 Serbie 0.620072 0.678498 0.63928 0.658953 0.621737
36 Malaisie 0.781241 0.716039 0.691407 0.624253 0.588052
37 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.52393 0.529734 0.553484 0.522361 0.574773
38 Albanie -0.395101 -0.490889 0.151114 0.563279 0.552788
39 Lituanie 0.448797 0.521501 0.571855 0.518934 0.549397
40 Ukraine 0.553144 0.601226 0.551676 0.526113 0.51783
41 Hong-Kong 0.5907 0.527091 0.582715 0.498958 0.508935
42 Bulgarie 0.373395 0.410246 0.446085 0.39622 0.467999
43 Panama 0.120865 0.262895 0.327072 0.406595 0.456574
44 Turquie 0.366668 0.413431 0.434059 0.408188 0.432695
45 Liban 0.169187 0.298636 0.330028 0.365837 0.253783
46 Brésil 0.477157 0.548606 0.396395 0.265535 0.248326
47 Jordanie 0.009857 0.116103 0.072889 0.243351 0.244437
48 Grèce 0.172724 0.204131 0.176237 0.246401 0.243817
49 Philippines -0.000206 0.123978 0.193846 0.185253 0.209171
50 Uruguay 0.009544 0.065203 0.0148 0.092839 0.201715
51 Colombie 0.053324 0.024946 0.220323 0.21155 0.18691
52 Arabie Saoudite -0.14292 -0.153061 -0.587461 -0.424999 0.159707
53 Russie 0.607811 0.510294 0.262064 0.236851 0.153215
54 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.348336 0.340088 0.314978 0.224349 0.14369
55 Afrique du Sud 0.237984 0.165269 0.142773 0.074112 0.119045
56 Inde 0.167513 0.168601 0.195512 0.156613 0.111379
57 Costa Rica -0.074199 -0.022522 0.076485 0.099231 0.10939
58 Botswana -0.856364 -0.891555 -0.499249 0.160551 0.103461
59 Tunisie -0.131907 -0.002222 0.045962 -0.002907 0.073213
60 Argentine 0.053536 0.073768 0.077066 0.071968 0.03248
61 Émirats arabes unis 0.027597 -0.021976 -0.087372 -0.090659 0.022855
62 Moldavie -0.133663 -0.072815 -0.027445 -0.045761 -0.016908
63 El Salvador -0.116526 -0.189023 -0.061823 -0.081826 -0.049824
64 Macédoine -0.191644 -0.17045 -0.147629 -0.093479 -0.074848
65 Indonésie -0.118449 -0.08396 -0.020326 -0.071984 -0.12726
66 Jamaïque -0.427749 -0.281016 -0.122977 -0.185574 -0.177172
67 Guatemala -0.295499 -0.227969 -0.119904 -0.174861 -0.207441
68 Oman -0.520017 -0.267441 -0.413821 -0.385965 -0.217931
69 Egypte -0.225445 -0.220008 -0.203256 -0.246454 -0.222178
70 République dominicaine -0.211474 -0.222327 -0.167914 -0.225693 -0.237717
71 Chili -0.196433 -0.171878 -0.22253 -0.222266 -0.244314
72 Koweit -0.163299 -0.350656 -0.576707 -0.561737 -0.273291
73 Géorgie -0.305433 -0.257126 -0.480803 -0.332959 -0.285249
74 Qatar -0.164568 -0.052826 -0.332957 -0.175169 -0.321962
75 Viêt-Nam -0.518922 -0.378907 -0.320109 -0.350821 -0.350102
76 Australie -0.155239 -0.171363 -0.210701 -0.331165 -0.397884
77 Ouzbékistan -0.430205 -0.494788 -0.381779 -0.464363 -0.440298
78 Sri Lanka -0.49913 -0.429014 -0.413415 -0.404041 -0.462231
79 Kenya -0.703524 -0.680229 -0.50892 -0.515603 -0.462247
80 Kazakhstan -0.208866 -0.340398 -0.457024 -0.358499 -0.463165
81 Trinité-et-Tobago -0.015152 -0.153895 -0.665608 -0.578275 -0.466174
82 Syrie -0.694426 -0.685109 -0.528191 -0.499214 -0.507876
83 Namibie -0.846134 -0.936692 -0.64927 -0.455053 -0.528921
84 Maroc -0.504934 -0.522127 -0.422183 -0.495026 -0.543964
85 Paraguay -0.602863 -0.582084 -0.592209 -0.511621 -0.577246
86 Pakistan -0.628576 -0.562095 -0.521128 -0.549741 -0.595481
87 Venezuela -0.163963 -0.342388 -0.674475 -0.594428 -0.600758
88 Pérou -0.554171 -0.614336 -0.635521 -0.669472 -0.63866
89 Honduras -0.74113 -0.623958 -0.634949 -0.726013 -0.687012
90 Équateur -0.851284 -0.834038 -0.803638 -0.867623 -0.7082
91 Nicaragua -0.892176 -0.900827 -0.69023 -0.690234 -0.763813
92 Turkménistan -0.757745 -0.917194 -0.891974 -0.8061 -0.783954
93 Zimbabwe -0.404289 -0.495619 -0.452638 -0.66792 -0.803228
94 Bolivie -0.851524 -0.871062 -0.795241 -0.828261 -0.821025
95 Togo -0.931563 -0.895164 -0.707087 -0.825125 -0.965744
96 Laos -0.883054 -0.820657 -0.903238 -0.957344 -0.991139
97 Bangladesh -1.19826 -1.01275 -0.936713 -0.927904 -1.00757
98 Zambie -1.17274 -0.921299 -0.984426 -1.06916 -1.01419
99 Madagascar -1.11331 -1.08764 -0.98895 -0.99845 -1.02866
100 Iran -0.79443 -0.750568 -1.04616 -1.04947 -1.03542
101 Cambodge -1.20287 -1.2005 -1.06295 -0.985864 -1.04752
102 Mongolie -0.971723 -1.03852 -0.996349 -0.920288 -1.0525
103 Congo, République démocratique du -1.35887 -1.17151 -1.11877 -1.23828 -1.06271
104 Tanzanie -1.19109 -1.17687 -1.1291 -1.0167 -1.07147
105 Azerbaïdjan -0.981761 -1.08907 -1.00637 -1.08488 -1.08757
106 Gabon -1.26555 -0.961084 -0.693013 -0.749222 -1.09114
107 Sénégal -0.821983 -0.889482 -0.910768 -1.00621 -1.09485
108 Ghana -1.22288 -1.05022 -1.01148 -0.965165 -1.12736
109 Algérie -0.788727 -0.682755 -1.03209 -1.07781 -1.15498
110 Birmanie -1.24742 -1.20659 -1.19618 -1.24182 -1.20578
111 Ethiopie -1.05951 -1.14921 -1.3133 -1.30834 -1.2717
112 Mozambique -1.2241 -1.27774 -1.30539 -1.27566 -1.34061
113 Côte d'Ivoire -1.31008 -1.29502 -1.26803 -1.36195 -1.4005
114 Yémen -1.51778 -1.39501 -1.48326 -1.37207 -1.54769
115 Cameroun -1.80901 -1.62851 -1.59003 -1.45045 -1.64686
116 Congo, République du -1.6858 -1.82685 -1.89518 -1.79244 -1.77145
117 Mauritanie -1.73472 -1.82521 -1.78088 -1.80625 -1.79613
118 Soudan -1.99046 -2.07678 -1.94729 -2.02485 -1.8002
119 Guinée -1.22219 -1.53055 -1.58997 -1.71668 -1.82734
120 Angola -0.798225 -1.91304 -1.95195 -1.96257 -2.01309
121 Nigeria -2.1849 -2.06466 -2.53077 -2.76425 -2.35951