The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Suisse 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.59625
2 Japon 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.4687
3 Singapour 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.12695
4 Corée du Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.9776
5 Allemagne 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89589
6 Suède 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.59228
7 États-Unis 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.55257
8 Royaume-Uni 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54527
9 République tchèque 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.39521
10 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.37382
11 Irlande 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.31298
12 Hong-Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.23447
13 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.15695
14 Malaisie 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.03133
15 Hongrie 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.02935
16 Belgique 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.99588
17 Italie 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 0.949015
18 Chine 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.89219
19 Slovaquie 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 0.866871
20 Norvège 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.822228
21 Danemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.808458
22 Pologne 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.735418
23 Estonie 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.649198
24 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.584897
25 Mexique 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.572282
26 Lituanie 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.462709
27 Croatie 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.417804
28 Espagne 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.387094
29 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.342765
30 Bélarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.337386
31 Émirats arabes unis 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.241859
32 Lettonie 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.197157
33 Bulgarie 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.169379
34 Russie 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.142872
35 Serbie 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.0745877
36 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.0657328
37 Inde 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.0490719
38 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.0489485
39 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.0324603
40 Jordanie 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.0100069
41 Turquie 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 -0.0383133
42 Afrique du Sud 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0385376
43 Tunisie 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.0927338
44 Brésil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.103021
45 Colombie -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.123219
46 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.126994
47 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.177184
48 Grèce 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.19882
49 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.263641
50 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.350881
51 Indonésie -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.365108
52 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.410868
53 Macédoine -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.423583
54 Maurice -0.429113
55 Australie -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.468001
56 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.52902
57 Kirghizistan -0.570333
58 Namibie -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.572063
59 République dominicaine -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.599903
60 Argentine -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.622054
61 Jamaïque -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.657155
62 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.703193
63 Moldavie 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.734169
64 Algérie -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.781585
65 Sénégal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.808596
66 Cambodge -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.819875
67 Géorgie -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.843737
68 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.852336
69 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.855573
70 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -0.987254
71 Albanie 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.997802
72 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.04279
73 Mali -1.06046
74 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.06616
75 Maroc -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -1.09205
76 Pérou -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.11161
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13868
78 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.19204
79 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -1.20526
80 Tanzanie -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.20639
81 Ethiopie -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.3311
82 Équateur -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.3774
83 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.56216
84 Mongolie -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.76497
85 Mauritanie -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.26649
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thaïlande 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yémen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Roumanie 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Arabie Saoudite -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Congo, République du -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Viêt-Nam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Congo, République démocratique du -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Koweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finlande 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Soudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Autriche 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syrie -0.670493
107 Liban 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Cameroun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birmanie -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinité-et-Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Pays-Bas 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkménistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambie -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Ouzbékistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinée -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Côte d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivie -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaïdjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovénie 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422