The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japon 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.27782
2 Suisse 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.17213
3 Allemagne 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 2.10076
4 Suède 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.86322
5 Corée du Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.83839
6 Singapour 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.7998
7 États-Unis 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.77468
8 République tchèque 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.75172
9 Royaume-Uni 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54403
10 Hongrie 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.50353
11 Irlande 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.4875
12 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.48178
13 Slovaquie 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.45202
14 Danemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.30706
15 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.30363
16 Mexique 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 1.27347
17 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 1.236
18 Italie 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.22921
19 Norvège 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.21448
20 Pologne 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.21063
21 Malaisie 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.07889
22 Russie 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 1.02807
23 Estonie 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.01713
24 Espagne 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.944616
25 Bélarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.910243
26 Lettonie 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.872009
27 Croatie 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.85713
28 Chine 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.850874
29 Lituanie 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.805056
30 Brésil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.783805
31 Hong-Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.770096
32 Serbie 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.730838
33 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.659255
34 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.62899
35 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.570308
36 Bulgarie 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.568975
37 Inde 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.533078
38 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.495774
39 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 0.488584
40 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.481395
41 Émirats arabes unis 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.4501
42 Afrique du Sud 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 0.42691
43 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.40826
44 Turquie 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.371222
45 Argentine -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 0.356488
46 Grèce 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.353763
47 Colombie -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 0.323295
48 Bahreïn 0.274286
49 Australie -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 0.273459
50 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.254851
51 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 0.180979
52 Géorgie -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 0.169247
53 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 0.154263
54 Kirghizistan 0.129527
55 Jordanie 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0669913
56 Namibie -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 0.0
57 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 0.0
58 Belgique 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.0
59 Tunisie 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.025504
60 Indonésie -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0401054
61 Macédoine -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.0478946
62 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0564826
63 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.0734745
64 Jamaïque -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.0971355
65 République dominicaine -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.145607
66 Arménie -0.213839
67 Moldavie 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.236181
68 Pérou -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.316394
69 Viêt-Nam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.323136
70 Algérie -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.364908
71 Maurice -0.375307
72 Sénégal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.381733
73 Albanie 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.464026
74 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.510255
75 Mongolie -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -0.554225
76 Maroc -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.555949
77 Équateur -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.556652
78 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.572574
79 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.589646
80 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.644255
81 Mali -0.678011
82 Mauritanie -1.86292 -1.6776 -0.80395
83 Tanzanie -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -0.901479
84 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -0.901528
85 Ethiopie -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -0.959502
86 Cambodge -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.964806
87 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.981452
88 Birmanie -1.27821 -1.13827
89 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.22675
90 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
91 Thaïlande 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
92 Yémen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
93 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
94 Roumanie 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
95 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
96 Arabie Saoudite -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
97 Congo, République du -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
98 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
99 Congo, République démocratique du -1.06695 -1.29544
100 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
101 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
102 Koweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
103 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
104 Finlande 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
105 Soudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
106 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
107 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
108 Autriche 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
109 Syrie -0.670493
110 Liban 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
111 Cameroun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
112 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
113 Trinité-et-Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
114 Pays-Bas 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
115 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
116 Turkménistan -1.00593 -1.09788
117 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
118 Zambie -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
119 Ouzbékistan -0.555588 -0.531504
120 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
121 Guinée -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
122 Côte d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
123 Bolivie -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
124 Azerbaïdjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
125 Slovénie 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
126 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422