The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Pays 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japon 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.22938
2 Suisse 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.0544
3 Allemagne 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.95551
4 Corée du Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.79864
5 Suède 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.75485
6 Singapour 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.71625
7 Autriche 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445 1.61209
8 Royaume-Uni 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.59265
9 États-Unis 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.58101
10 République tchèque 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.57717
11 Finlande 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829 1.55487
12 Slovénie 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199 1.44667
13 Irlande 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.44421
14 France 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.34955
15 Hongrie 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.29993
16 Slovaquie 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.28447
17 Danemark 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.23615
18 Belgique 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 1.21917
19 Italie 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.21412
20 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.186
21 Pologne 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.14721
22 Pays-Bas 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275 1.10655
23 Norvège 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.03384
24 Estonie 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.02913
25 Mexique 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.932908
26 Chine 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.911251
27 Roumanie 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995 0.871347
28 Malaisie 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 0.865661
29 Espagne 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.841379
30 Croatie 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.831182
31 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.767588
32 Arabie Saoudite -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486 0.766112
33 Hong-Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.749425
34 Bélarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.723198
35 Lituanie 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.703753
36 Thaïlande 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247 0.671775
37 Lettonie 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.650211
38 Serbie 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.581892
39 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.555
40 Bulgarie 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.53637
41 Bosnie-Herzégovine 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.482107
42 Russie 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.467258
43 Ukraine 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257 0.455412
44 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.441168
45 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.434081
46 Turquie 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.404726
47 Nouvelle-Zélande 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.371123
48 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.3146
49 Liban 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603 0.248075
50 Émirats arabes unis 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.246693
51 Inde 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.236866
52 Brésil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.229095
53 Grèce 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.222362
54 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.175781
55 Koweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111 0.128739
56 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 0.112086
57 Macédoine -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 0.105846
58 Tunisie 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.0973685
59 Jordanie 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0687142
60 Trinité-et-Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712 0.00787162
61 Colombie -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.00253314
62 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.00355699
63 Afrique du Sud 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0292484
64 Kirghizistan -0.0461406
65 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0702666
66 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304 -0.131597
67 Géorgie -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.136839
68 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.140565
69 Australie -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.16901
70 Argentine -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.179818
71 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.216857
72 Maurice -0.245542
73 Indonésie -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.253646
74 Jamaïque -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.26616
75 Moldavie 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.300825
76 Viêt-Nam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.332587
77 République dominicaine -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.352578
78 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617 -0.389103
79 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422 -0.392704
80 Ouganda -0.44042
81 Albanie 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.487843
82 Cuba -0.507612
83 Sénégal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.53243
84 Azerbaïdjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889 -0.545569
85 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544 -0.574449
86 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.579077
87 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.642897
88 Syrie -0.670493 -0.644997
89 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392 -0.658893
90 Ouzbékistan -0.555588 -0.531504 -0.663603
91 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.666548
92 Pérou -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.68778
93 Algérie -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.715288
94 Libéria -0.7467
95 Maroc -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.75663
96 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948 -0.803681
97 Cambodge -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.860402
98 Mali -0.885402
99 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.897424
100 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.988196
101 Équateur -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.989348
102 Turkménistan -1.00593 -1.09788 -1.00243
103 Tanzanie -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.00641
104 Libye -1.05141
105 Ethiopie -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.06155
106 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505 -1.06876
107 Tadjikistan -1.07242
108 Bolivie -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269 -1.09992
109 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136 -1.10671
110 Mongolie -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.11654
111 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559 -1.22314
112 Zambie -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239 -1.22629
113 Congo, République du -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235 -1.28535
114 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.32037
115 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.41096
116 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163 -1.432
117 Soudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774 -1.43747
118 Yémen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363 -1.46949
119 Côte d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491 -1.51738
120 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177 -1.54415
121 Mauritanie -1.86292 -1.6776 -1.59462
122 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672 -1.61157
123 Malawi -1.6499
124 Cameroun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906 -1.65947
125 Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée -1.74395
126 Guinée -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331 -1.9858
127 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
128 Namibie -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
129 Congo, République démocratique du -1.06695 -1.29544
130 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
131 Birmanie -1.27821