The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Paese 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Giappone 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.61516
2 Corea del Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 2.37378
3 Svizzera 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.33787
4 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.25069
5 Germania 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89207
6 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.47134
7 Repubblica Ceca 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.42049
8 Stati Uniti 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.3899
9 Regno Unito 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.36113
10 Ungheria 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.24403
11 Israele 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.17832
12 Slovacchia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.16945
13 Italia 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.13343
14 Francia 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.13204
15 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.12618
16 Irlanda 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.10564
17 Cina 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 1.00689
18 Belgio 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.978514
19 Messico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.75823
20 Polonia 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.672875
21 Danimarca 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.662894
22 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.545405
23 Norvegia 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.518245
24 Croazia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.491664
25 Spagna 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.431715
26 Bielorussia 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.426
27 Filippine 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.389823
28 Bosnia-Erzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.368803
29 Emirati Arabi Uniti 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.304849
30 Lituania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.252274
31 Portogallo 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.213795
32 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.141007
33 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.140373
34 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.139368
35 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.114576
36 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.049962
37 Turchia 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.0317636
38 Lettonia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.0284908
39 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.00202402
40 Grecia 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.0404171
41 Brasile 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.0835801
42 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0852673
43 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 -0.116362
44 Costarica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.159627
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.19239
46 Giordania 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.221577
47 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.274391
48 Sudafrica 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.295213
49 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.382714
50 Egitto -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.395968
51 Mauritius -0.40707
52 Kirghizistan -0.457679
53 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.465951
54 Neozelandese 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.472886
55 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.481255
56 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.501094
57 Repubblica Dominicana -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.501275
58 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.606872
59 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.634878
60 Giamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.694666
61 Svezia 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 -0.714396
62 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.746684
63 Cambogia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.750174
64 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.781491
65 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.834151
66 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.845389
67 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.871937
68 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.882143
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.899662
70 Marocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.944238
71 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.972731
72 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.99361
73 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.06909
74 Perù -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.0828
75 Mali -1.12138
76 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.12468
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13478
78 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.13883
79 Etiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.16391
80 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.18288
81 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -1.22746
82 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.23583
83 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.31897
84 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.67118
85 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.34538
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailandia 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Arabia Saudita -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Congo, Repubblica del -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ucraina 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Congo, Repubblica Democratica del -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finlandia 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Siria -0.670493
107 Libano 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Camerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birmania -1.27821
110 Mozambico -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad e Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Paesi Bassi 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Costa d'Avorio -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422