The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Paese 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Svizzera 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.59625
2 Giappone 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.4687
3 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.12695
4 Corea del Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.9776
5 Germania 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89589
6 Svezia 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.59228
7 Stati Uniti 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.55257
8 Regno Unito 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54527
9 Repubblica Ceca 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.39521
10 Israele 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.37382
11 Irlanda 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.31298
12 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.23447
13 Francia 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.15695
14 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.03133
15 Ungheria 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.02935
16 Belgio 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.99588
17 Italia 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 0.949015
18 Cina 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.89219
19 Slovacchia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 0.866871
20 Norvegia 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.822228
21 Danimarca 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.808458
22 Polonia 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.735418
23 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.649198
24 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.584897
25 Messico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.572282
26 Lituania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.462709
27 Croazia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.417804
28 Spagna 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.387094
29 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.342765
30 Bielorussia 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.337386
31 Emirati Arabi Uniti 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.241859
32 Lettonia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.197157
33 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.169379
34 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.142872
35 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.0745877
36 Portogallo 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.0657328
37 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.0490719
38 Filippine 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.0489485
39 Bosnia-Erzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.0324603
40 Giordania 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.0100069
41 Turchia 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 -0.0383133
42 Sudafrica 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0385376
43 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.0927338
44 Brasile 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.103021
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.123219
46 Neozelandese 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.126994
47 Costarica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.177184
48 Grecia 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.19882
49 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.263641
50 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.350881
51 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.365108
52 Egitto -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.410868
53 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.423583
54 Mauritius -0.429113
55 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.468001
56 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.52902
57 Kirghizistan -0.570333
58 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.572063
59 Repubblica Dominicana -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.599903
60 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.622054
61 Giamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.657155
62 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.703193
63 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.734169
64 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.781585
65 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.808596
66 Cambogia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.819875
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.843737
68 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.852336
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.855573
70 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -0.987254
71 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.997802
72 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.04279
73 Mali -1.06046
74 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.06616
75 Marocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -1.09205
76 Perù -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.11161
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13868
78 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.19204
79 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -1.20526
80 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.20639
81 Etiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.3311
82 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.3774
83 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.56216
84 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.76497
85 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.26649
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailandia 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Arabia Saudita -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Congo, Repubblica del -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ucraina 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Congo, Repubblica Democratica del -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finlandia 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Siria -0.670493
107 Libano 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Camerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birmania -1.27821
110 Mozambico -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad e Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Paesi Bassi 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Costa d'Avorio -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422