The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Paese 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Giappone 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.27782
2 Svizzera 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.17213
3 Germania 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 2.10076
4 Svezia 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.86322
5 Corea del Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.83839
6 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.7998
7 Stati Uniti 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.77468
8 Repubblica Ceca 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.75172
9 Regno Unito 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54403
10 Ungheria 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.50353
11 Irlanda 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.4875
12 Francia 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.48178
13 Slovacchia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.45202
14 Danimarca 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.30706
15 Israele 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.30363
16 Messico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 1.27347
17 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 1.236
18 Italia 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.22921
19 Norvegia 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.21448
20 Polonia 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.21063
21 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.07889
22 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 1.02807
23 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.01713
24 Spagna 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.944616
25 Bielorussia 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.910243
26 Lettonia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.872009
27 Croazia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.85713
28 Cina 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.850874
29 Lituania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.805056
30 Brasile 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.783805
31 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.770096
32 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.730838
33 Neozelandese 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.659255
34 Bosnia-Erzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.62899
35 Filippine 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.570308
36 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.568975
37 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.533078
38 Costarica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.495774
39 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 0.488584
40 Portogallo 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.481395
41 Emirati Arabi Uniti 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.4501
42 Sudafrica 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 0.42691
43 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.40826
44 Turchia 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.371222
45 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 0.356488
46 Grecia 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.353763
47 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 0.323295
48 Bahrain 0.274286
49 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 0.273459
50 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.254851
51 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 0.180979
52 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 0.169247
53 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 0.154263
54 Kirghizistan 0.129527
55 Giordania 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0669913
56 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 0.0
57 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 0.0
58 Belgio 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.0
59 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.025504
60 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0401054
61 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.0478946
62 Egitto -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0564826
63 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.0734745
64 Giamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.0971355
65 Repubblica Dominicana -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.145607
66 Armenia -0.213839
67 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.236181
68 Perù -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.316394
69 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.323136
70 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.364908
71 Mauritius -0.375307
72 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.381733
73 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.464026
74 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.510255
75 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -0.554225
76 Marocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.555949
77 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.556652
78 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.572574
79 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.589646
80 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.644255
81 Mali -0.678011
82 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -0.80395
83 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -0.901479
84 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -0.901528
85 Etiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -0.959502
86 Cambogia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.964806
87 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.981452
88 Birmania -1.27821 -1.13827
89 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.22675
90 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
91 Thailandia 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
92 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
93 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
94 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
95 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
96 Arabia Saudita -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
97 Congo, Repubblica del -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
98 Ucraina 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
99 Congo, Repubblica Democratica del -1.06695 -1.29544
100 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
101 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
102 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
103 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
104 Finlandia 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
105 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
106 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
107 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
108 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
109 Siria -0.670493
110 Libano 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
111 Camerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
112 Mozambico -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
113 Trinidad e Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
114 Paesi Bassi 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
115 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
116 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
117 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
118 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
119 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
120 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
121 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
122 Costa d'Avorio -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
123 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
124 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
125 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
126 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422