The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Paese 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Giappone 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.22938
2 Svizzera 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.0544
3 Germania 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.95551
4 Corea del Sud 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.79864
5 Svezia 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.75485
6 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.71625
7 Austria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445 1.61209
8 Regno Unito 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.59265
9 Stati Uniti 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.58101
10 Repubblica Ceca 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.57717
11 Finlandia 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829 1.55487
12 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199 1.44667
13 Irlanda 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.44421
14 Francia 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.34955
15 Ungheria 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.29993
16 Slovacchia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.28447
17 Danimarca 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.23615
18 Belgio 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 1.21917
19 Italia 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.21412
20 Israele 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.186
21 Polonia 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.14721
22 Paesi Bassi 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275 1.10655
23 Norvegia 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.03384
24 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.02913
25 Messico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.932908
26 Cina 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.911251
27 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995 0.871347
28 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 0.865661
29 Spagna 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.841379
30 Croazia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.831182
31 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.767588
32 Arabia Saudita -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486 0.766112
33 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.749425
34 Bielorussia 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.723198
35 Lituania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.703753
36 Thailandia 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247 0.671775
37 Lettonia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.650211
38 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.581892
39 Portogallo 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.555
40 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.53637
41 Bosnia-Erzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.482107
42 Russia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.467258
43 Ucraina 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257 0.455412
44 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.441168
45 Filippine 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.434081
46 Turchia 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.404726
47 Neozelandese 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.371123
48 Costarica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.3146
49 Libano 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603 0.248075
50 Emirati Arabi Uniti 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.246693
51 India 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.236866
52 Brasile 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.229095
53 Grecia 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.222362
54 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.175781
55 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111 0.128739
56 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 0.112086
57 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 0.105846
58 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.0973685
59 Giordania 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0687142
60 Trinidad e Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712 0.00787162
61 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.00253314
62 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.00355699
63 Sudafrica 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0292484
64 Kirghizistan -0.0461406
65 Egitto -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0702666
66 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304 -0.131597
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.136839
68 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.140565
69 Australia -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.16901
70 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.179818
71 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.216857
72 Mauritius -0.245542
73 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.253646
74 Giamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.26616
75 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.300825
76 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.332587
77 Repubblica Dominicana -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.352578
78 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617 -0.389103
79 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422 -0.392704
80 Uganda -0.44042
81 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.487843
82 Cuba -0.507612
83 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.53243
84 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889 -0.545569
85 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544 -0.574449
86 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.579077
87 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.642897
88 Siria -0.670493 -0.644997
89 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392 -0.658893
90 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504 -0.663603
91 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.666548
92 Perù -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.68778
93 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.715288
94 Liberia -0.7467
95 Marocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.75663
96 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948 -0.803681
97 Cambogia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.860402
98 Mali -0.885402
99 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.897424
100 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.988196
101 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.989348
102 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788 -1.00243
103 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.00641
104 Libia -1.05141
105 Etiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.06155
106 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505 -1.06876
107 Tagikistan -1.07242
108 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269 -1.09992
109 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136 -1.10671
110 Mongolia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.11654
111 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559 -1.22314
112 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239 -1.22629
113 Congo, Repubblica del -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235 -1.28535
114 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.32037
115 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.41096
116 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163 -1.432
117 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774 -1.43747
118 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363 -1.46949
119 Costa d'Avorio -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491 -1.51738
120 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177 -1.54415
121 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -1.59462
122 Mozambico -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672 -1.61157
123 Malawi -1.6499
124 Camerun -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906 -1.65947
125 Papua Nuova Guinea -1.74395
126 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331 -1.9858
127 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
128 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
129 Congo, Repubblica Democratica del -1.06695 -1.29544
130 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
131 Birmania -1.27821