The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Улс 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1 Япон 2.41259 2.54183 2.55927 2.62482 2.53902
2 Герман 2.28213 2.29872 2.30351 2.33549 2.25612
3 Швейцарь улс 2.28569 2.24492 2.26769 2.2797 2.22311
4 Швед 2.22944 2.21793 2.14061 2.15152 2.10031
5 Австри 2.0734 2.12007 2.07826 2.03268 1.91867
6 Финлянд 1.89635 1.9172 1.87757 1.93772 1.90875
7 АНУ-ын 1.73991 1.82759 1.77051 1.83305 1.82767
8 Нэгдсэн Вант Улс 1.90245 1.8913 1.81848 1.80903 1.82057
9 Франц 1.72926 1.71064 1.69969 1.60763 1.58323
10 Итали 1.73817 1.73744 1.68699 1.63958 1.55468
11 Дани улс 1.72646 1.77819 1.59706 1.52388 1.51091
12 Бельги 1.53536 1.50225 1.50236 1.43024 1.46882
13 Чех улс 1.33772 1.39329 1.4509 1.42569 1.40372
14 Ирланд 1.43868 1.41344 1.31883 1.34091 1.37233
15 Словени 1.38116 1.39101 1.42703 1.3489 1.34636
16 Нидерланд 1.34249 1.38627 1.31958 1.33851 1.28338
17 Словак 1.20247 1.23843 1.26368 1.21663 1.23372
18 Испани 1.25191 1.22672 1.26353 1.19306 1.17464
19 Өмнөд Солонгос 0.821888 0.855669 0.9454 1.02663 1.14944
20 Израиль 1.23457 1.22134 1.11366 1.07941 1.11492
21 Сингапур 0.857566 0.940113 1.0629 1.08779 0.983781
22 Унгар 0.856917 0.929671 1.00057 0.916166 0.92667
23 Канад 0.652211 0.819512 0.856119 0.891053 0.842988
24 Норвеги улс 0.855982 0.836537 0.755938 0.761752 0.829814
25 Польш 0.550205 0.600638 0.659829 0.752045 0.801098
26 Мексик 0.807204 0.826065 0.785075 0.713387 0.742549
27 Хорват 0.889459 0.818057 0.824962 0.74655 0.727172
28 Бразил 0.471776 0.512414 0.558738 0.529039 0.609912
29 Украйн 0.127406 0.122931 0.062267 0.568178 0.5933
30 Эстони улс 0.217702 0.256368 0.457924 0.545415 0.514904
31 Болгар 0.409459 0.364839 0.323871 0.34916 0.501917
32 Босни ба Герцеговина 0.760914 0.673995 0.635623 0.580926 0.492681
33 Хонг Конгийн 0.613528 0.527659 0.594131 0.471498 0.489159
34 Беларусь 0.472178 0.378847 0.477808 0.607991 0.471432
35 ОХУ- 0.057938 0.061145 0.148674 0.297075 0.469322
36 Румын 0.55807 0.426141 0.469295 0.48008 0.467421
37 Малайз 0.115417 0.02807 0.258514 0.330865 0.454003
38 Азербайжаны -0.133873 -0.184645 -0.220812 0.295336 0.440148
39 Португал 0.479471 0.365271 0.407458 0.403863 0.420509
40 Шинэ Зеланд 0.369015 0.424029 0.44124 0.33429 0.34167
41 Хятад улс 0.170488 0.089156 0.234956 0.221438 0.328308
42 Литва 0.159148 0.07006 0.063567 0.262575 0.282998
43 Өмнөд Африк 0.024123 0.113564 0.108519 0.172478 0.252567
44 Латви улс -0.043451 -0.149621 0.046373 0.247579 0.24158
45 Гүрж -0.039227 -0.014192 0.458729 0.37478 0.20617
46 Уругвай 0.137513 0.287779 0.317795 0.281436 0.186327
47 Молдав 0.542856 0.360477 0.284536 0.209032 0.180126
48 Казахстан -0.150128 -0.170424 0.059747 0.320195 0.170617
49 Тайланд 0.140791 0.114266 0.134664 0.08527 0.170387
50 Грек 0.099136 -0.006531 0.006074 0.029853 0.151935
51 Македон 0.402287 0.237408 0.251441 0.167876 0.132217
52 Энэтхэг улс 0.025898 -0.024145 0.066093 0.034912 0.101682
53 Турк 0.092905 0.035269 0.102971 0.003711 0.099291
54 Жордан -0.012239 0.002117 -0.026579 -0.028269 0.060741
55 Ливан 0.096162 0.126785 0.055535 -0.042066 0.014512
56 Аргентин -0.010048 -0.02758 0.010787 -0.01855 0.012858
57 Тринидад ба Тобаго 0.280493 0.224247 -0.019194 0.049676 0.01063
58 Колумб -0.092689 -0.137058 -0.057388 -0.052715 0.003091
59 Австрали -0.038421 -0.009273 0.04147 0.027905 -0.00787
60 Панам 0.139468 0.124251 0.091303 -0.035657 -0.014804
61 Эль Сальвадор 0.240982 0.148981 -0.018033 -0.191735 -0.111639
62 Коста-Рика -0.039951 -0.155692 -0.202471 -0.259614 -0.11906
63 Венесуэл -0.328245 -0.187383 -0.084909 -0.082202 -0.131131
64 Саудын Араб -0.241864 0.154833 0.042888 -0.004363 -0.142044
65 Гватемал -0.106833 -0.040386 -0.006738 -0.09217 -0.183695
66 Филиппин -0.146981 -0.108895 -0.119353 -0.264709 -0.193581
67 Чили улс -0.365605 -0.296188 -0.197503 -0.236143 -0.22503
68 Арабын Нэгдсэн Эмират улс -0.458894 -0.422395 -0.350496 -0.41129 -0.242739
69 Узбекстан -0.36545 -0.577566 -0.695181 -0.329384 -0.257701
70 Индонез -0.506392 -0.489321 -0.366439 -0.386413 -0.263329
71 Зимбабве -0.633409 -0.453192 -0.294163 -0.243137 -0.366698
72 Албани -0.195093 -0.179171 -0.286801 -0.377064 -0.404282
73 Доминиканы Бүгд Найрамдах Улс -0.507464 -0.598513 -0.496314 -0.469361 -0.453478
74 Перу улс -0.411949 -0.52763 -0.431251 -0.425053 -0.453811
75 Кувейт -0.37915 -0.534725 -0.907519 -0.637936 -0.456562
76 Тунис -0.047817 -0.13953 -0.149132 -0.454045 -0.521211
77 Египет -0.374028 -0.403994 -0.446871 -0.46767 -0.535714
78 Мозамбик -0.153745 -0.26666 -0.45673 -0.831413 -0.569856
79 Туркменистан -0.83731 -0.920734 -0.737921 -0.795773 -0.613978
80 Лаос -0.781282 -0.703118 -0.817567 -0.54968 -0.647999
81 Никарагуа -0.365774 -0.351296 -0.611364 -0.759552 -0.658495
82 Кени -0.960591 -0.798098 -0.61515 -0.555286 -0.667525
83 Монгол улс -0.293334 -0.451942 -0.540687 -0.635697 -0.671654
84 Ямайка -0.394466 -0.569588 -0.64307 -0.740573 -0.679477
85 Парагвай -0.961847 -0.804891 -0.612841 -0.645988 -0.682574
86 Оман -0.732341 -0.40115 -0.67748 -0.498061 -0.685378
87 Гондурас -0.581544 -0.603182 -0.647264 -0.716076 -0.695074
88 Катар улс -0.618398 -0.322743 -0.619172 -0.606565 -0.709645
89 Марокко -0.504796 -0.668407 -0.618859 -0.768595 -0.720285
90 Иран улс -1.32054 -1.15496 -0.972758 -0.854963 -0.731991
91 Болив -0.930338 -0.871765 -0.784781 -0.670547 -0.761067
92 Шри-Ланка -0.474121 -0.655767 -0.681331 -0.818788 -0.782064
93 Алжир -0.770482 -0.635657 -0.787497 -0.72511 -0.814718
94 Пакистан -0.70854 -0.817542 -0.79391 -0.831704 -0.81523
95 Сенегал -0.92972 -1.09304 -0.794811 -1.14286 -0.839209
96 Вьетнам -1.04231 -1.04169 -0.928968 -0.885671 -0.841634
97 Замби -0.98827 -1.06644 -0.891487 -0.874625 -0.95923
98 Судан -1.00416 -0.884069 -0.919266 -0.97249 -0.996098
99 Эквадор -0.955749 -0.968503 -1.0181 -1.06839 -1.01785
100 Сири -0.92472 -0.734558 -0.91366 -1.08399 -1.05905
101 Камбож улс -1.01317 -1.02126 -0.985304 -0.931056 -1.05982
102 Бангладеш -0.840842 -0.921693 -0.918699 -1.06387 -1.06811
103 Того -0.75393 -1.28427 -1.377 -1.31135 -1.12366
104 Мадагаскар -1.15521 -1.08774 -1.0196 -1.14395 -1.12751
105 Мавритани -1.18484 -1.14335 -1.22374 -1.32609 -1.13999
106 Танзани -1.21508 -1.13622 -1.26575 -1.31053 -1.21963
107 Бирм -1.28022 -1.19653 -1.25906 -1.25981 -1.2446
108 Йемен -0.654439 -0.585367 -0.990987 -1.33012 -1.25966
109 Гана улс -1.57914 -1.66955 -1.64302 -1.36653 -1.27141
110 Конго, Бүгд Найрамдах Улс -1.45875 -1.52143 -1.41008 -0.845544 -1.29766
111 Этиоп -0.916323 -0.729946 -1.02858 -1.20396 -1.33563
112 Зааны Ясан Эрэг улсын -1.69313 -1.56816 -1.53247 -1.2875 -1.37382
113 Конго, Бүгд Найрамдах Ардчилсан -1.43311 -1.38968 -1.32594 -1.32809 -1.38505
114 Габон -1.46737 -1.60925 -1.34952 -1.25007 -1.5865
115 Гвиней -1.28595 -1.216 -1.27707 -1.34948 -1.64311
116 Камерун -1.95829 -1.86519 -1.70179 -1.6158 -1.73434
117 Ангол -1.46963 -1.26224 -1.70503 -1.75814 -1.79175
118 Нигери улс -2.01377 -2.08403 -2.08757 -2.10242 -2.15015