The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Улс 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
1 Япон 2.48434 2.51283 2.53454 2.52662 2.61165
2 Герман 2.20218 2.26714 2.26168 2.23828 2.2377
3 Швейцарь улс 2.20498 2.20565 2.18502 2.24412 2.19269
4 Швед 1.96355 1.9692 1.97269 1.98924 2.0381
5 Нэгдсэн Вант Улс 1.83921 1.95509 1.97386 1.9704 1.99456
6 АНУ-ын 1.81703 1.85634 1.86251 1.85189 1.87944
7 Финлянд 1.89548 1.89805 1.85628 1.85446 1.86151
8 Австри 1.84365 1.80792 1.79399 1.73102 1.72614
9 Сингапур 1.09548 1.32845 1.55217 1.51534 1.62663
10 Франц 1.54483 1.56021 1.58127 1.58792 1.60699
11 Чех улс 1.43721 1.48955 1.5289 1.52518 1.56631
12 Ирланд 1.49523 1.39659 1.44934 1.45836 1.55977
13 Дани улс 1.49822 1.58105 1.58813 1.56798 1.54904
14 Итали 1.47994 1.49433 1.48962 1.52985 1.48036
15 Словени 1.306 1.34999 1.39814 1.45239 1.42297
16 Бельги 1.48359 1.45589 1.44647 1.40065 1.37079
17 Өмнөд Солонгос 1.03141 1.10914 1.19698 1.23895 1.29563
18 Словак 1.2153 1.20047 1.24483 1.2636 1.23843
19 Нидерланд 1.2877 1.27953 1.31034 1.23203 1.15767
20 Испани 1.09293 1.05449 1.10231 1.14719 1.15073
21 Израиль 1.14711 1.15445 1.22578 1.19289 1.10809
22 Унгар 0.876291 0.780762 0.866768 0.992979 1.06683
23 Мексик 0.698187 0.78642 0.948962 0.905129 0.958907
24 Польш 0.830855 0.814231 0.902565 0.939812 0.941757
25 Канад 0.933069 0.853475 0.882912 0.864428 0.89244
26 Малайз 0.440481 0.471149 0.64597 0.615196 0.734542
27 Беларусь 0.645948 0.607993 0.558912 0.842052 0.722964
28 Норвеги улс 0.928205 0.840261 0.771729 0.712675 0.66816
29 Хорват 0.677189 0.632074 0.665432 0.631126 0.638124
30 Хонг Конгийн 0.326658 0.341021 0.466488 0.617995 0.588883
31 Португал 0.461456 0.448254 0.54534 0.554852 0.539252
32 ОХУ- 0.593549 0.600178 0.556283 0.580501 0.515668
33 Эстони улс 0.547724 0.474429 0.502223 0.584589 0.498964
34 Украйн 0.647333 0.562931 0.484355 0.458828 0.475434
35 Румын 0.491754 0.464376 0.474142 0.441733 0.459015
36 Бразил 0.63263 0.63173 0.602188 0.512734 0.450486
37 Тайланд 0.14429 0.249545 0.371248 0.393173 0.435905
38 Хятад улс 0.254555 0.233022 0.307929 0.378568 0.41801
39 Болгар 0.483749 0.450126 0.442311 0.344109 0.384387
40 Босни ба Герцеговина 0.528119 0.456929 0.358552 0.302574 0.242517
41 Энэтхэг улс 0.118969 0.196844 0.210091 0.285222 0.216505
42 Шинэ Зеланд 0.359696 0.291932 0.27661 0.255177 0.192239
43 Грек 0.179631 0.146522 0.159244 0.205573 0.190595
44 Латви улс 0.265352 0.314476 0.181396 0.174325 0.180464
45 Колумб -0.033018 0.065018 0.130317 0.154886 0.165579
46 Литва 0.328792 0.30198 0.279794 0.192432 0.161984
47 Гүрж 0.172483 0.238245 0.211482 0.217142 0.138305
48 Коста-Рика -0.143079 -0.11122 -0.046819 -0.057797 0.102606
49 Тринидад ба Тобаго 0.1096 0.080107 -0.013316 0.058879 0.096957
50 Панам 0.022614 0.033458 0.107499 0.131178 0.081602
51 Турк 0.065294 0.08533 0.096253 0.103766 0.05963
52 Өмнөд Африк 0.233557 0.266418 0.195963 0.102827 0.055371
53 Уругвай 0.192193 0.150169 0.151318 0.11815 0.023785
54 Ливан 0.002854 -0.105666 0.009897 0.081991 0.013337
55 Индонез -0.237833 -0.178447 -0.118525 -0.006918 -0.011234
56 Албани -0.43934 -0.42106 -0.276055 -0.047386 -0.01742
57 Молдав 0.087567 -0.067187 -0.079771 -0.058476 -0.019165
58 Филиппин -0.29749 -0.278829 -0.051153 -0.067078 -0.025559
59 Аргентин 0.063963 0.061027 0.067484 0.065941 -0.048438
60 Саудын Араб 0.245782 0.133691 -0.104429 -0.047194 -0.054635
61 Македон 0.07125 -0.023729 -0.014313 0.004857 -0.069498
62 Австрали 0.052213 -0.033744 -0.031123 -0.06647 -0.073102
63 Венесуэл 0.01211 0.168625 -0.020923 -0.136609 -0.07666
64 Чили улс -0.123718 -0.122233 -0.120653 -0.097452 -0.089827
65 Эль Сальвадор -0.014612 -0.030598 -0.077975 -0.09812 -0.125807
66 Жордан 0.156842 0.199525 0.225435 0.259856 -0.130406
67 Тунис -0.487393 -0.371227 -0.335308 -0.176462 -0.17907
68 Казахстан 0.133409 -0.153616 -0.260106 -0.296089 -0.213565
69 Кувейт -0.548267 -0.517091 -0.386139 -0.407039 -0.300179
70 Катар улс -0.67805 -0.829927 -0.566883 -0.488146 -0.309149
71 Арабын Нэгдсэн Эмират улс -0.291874 -0.306447 -0.407031 -0.447912 -0.312063
72 Гватемал -0.234772 -0.23064 -0.221969 -0.314302 -0.397476
73 Египет -0.51622 -0.409572 -0.367532 -0.432688 -0.40861
74 Того -0.993679 -1.23014 -0.983632 -0.560002 -0.471307
75 Азербайжаны 0.344791 0.14542 -0.094196 -0.582499 -0.473538
76 Перу улс -0.519939 -0.452241 -0.454346 -0.504695 -0.537658
77 Зимбабве -0.507259 -0.538359 -0.450373 -0.48607 -0.53834
78 Доминиканы Бүгд Найрамдах Улс -0.558683 -0.7221 -0.55851 -0.502652 -0.541407
79 Парагвай -0.533852 -0.50479 -0.616288 -0.633126 -0.601299
80 Вьетнам -0.784948 -0.765394 -0.709704 -0.633173 -0.612566
81 Шри-Ланка -0.70323 -0.60947 -0.549153 -0.575275 -0.618172
82 Ямайка -0.605535 -0.673412 -0.737476 -0.616227 -0.636068
83 Кени -0.662768 -0.601449 -0.605449 -0.513933 -0.653247
84 Намиб -0.811299 -0.753271 -0.663161
85 Марокко -0.786999 -0.717755 -0.656 -0.703032 -0.676159
86 Ботсван -0.411647 -0.826433 -0.686412
87 Пакистан -0.825743 -0.799512 -0.835216 -0.809969 -0.689205
88 Узбекстан -0.129301 -0.502809 -0.620734 -0.819991 -0.701587
89 Монгол улс -0.72326 -0.818503 -0.725388 -0.735884 -0.746776
90 Гондурас -0.756757 -0.688814 -0.618441 -0.730843 -0.784403
91 Лаос -0.57976 -0.806781 -1.05256 -0.928956 -0.789641
92 Никарагуа -0.713839 -0.793998 -0.839711 -0.75545 -0.805578
93 Алжир -0.802829 -0.741165 -0.843424 -0.906108 -0.808618
94 Болив -0.630502 -0.770524 -0.812611 -0.881527 -0.836185
95 Иран улс -0.760938 -0.816195 -0.943975 -0.875579 -0.837151
96 Эквадор -0.97281 -0.888551 -0.841814 -0.871608 -0.878596
97 Сенегал -0.973323 -0.87581 -0.793548 -0.888731 -0.931708
98 Оман -0.518991 -0.615451 -0.620443 -0.947925 -0.932646
99 Этиоп -1.34347 -1.08673 -1.09717 -0.99011 -0.933984
100 Туркменистан -0.792971 -0.815293 -0.995334 -1.1145 -0.943435
101 Мозамбик -0.642561 -0.134453 -0.308848 -0.754133 -0.949386
102 Мавритани -1.13432 -0.758452 -0.730751 -0.797881 -0.951643
103 Замби -0.846865 -0.960927 -0.990725 -1.10573 -0.99658
104 Бангладеш -1.08508 -1.07312 -0.997463 -0.995853 -1.03815
105 Камбож улс -1.36686 -1.22901 -1.15353 -1.04926 -1.04947
106 Сири -1.0725 -1.05652 -1.02673 -1.04357 -1.08415
107 Конго, Бүгд Найрамдах Ардчилсан -1.33985 -1.52529 -1.27315 -1.1108 -1.10486
108 Гана улс -1.23054 -1.34344 -1.29443 -1.17101 -1.13735
109 Зааны Ясан Эрэг улсын -1.26317 -1.30078 -1.156 -1.08336 -1.14553
110 Мадагаскар -1.159 -1.1058 -1.16221 -1.08675 -1.15522
111 Бирм -1.24911 -1.15924 -1.30999 -1.29669 -1.18614
112 Габон -1.55086 -1.14666 -1.18934 -0.920493 -1.26716
113 Танзани -1.29562 -1.15902 -1.27194 -1.23882 -1.27368
114 Конго, Бүгд Найрамдах Улс -1.24502 -1.45647 -1.42348 -1.25988 -1.30159
115 Судан -1.21251 -1.15646 -1.44871 -1.48732 -1.4476
116 Йемен -1.50222 -1.60913 -1.51089 -1.57309 -1.48922
117 Камерун -1.83434 -1.81816 -1.77589 -1.76353 -1.53014
118 Гвиней -1.76458 -1.80391 -1.70685 -1.76285 -1.72383
119 Нигери улс -2.10267 -2.0675 -2.02891 -1.99444 -1.91639
120 Ангол -1.60166 -1.61325 -1.67367 -1.71443 -2.04759