The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Zwitserland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.59625
2 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.4687
3 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.12695
4 Zuid-Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.9776
5 Duitsland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89589
6 Zweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.59228
7 Verenigde Staten van Amerika 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.55257
8 Verenigd Koninkrijk 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54527
9 Tsjechische Republiek 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.39521
10 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.37382
11 Ierland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.31298
12 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.23447
13 Frankrijk 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.15695
14 Maleisië 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.03133
15 Hongarije 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.02935
16 België 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.99588
17 Italië 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 0.949015
18 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.89219
19 Slowakije 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 0.866871
20 Noorwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.822228
21 Denemarken 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.808458
22 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.735418
23 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.649198
24 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.584897
25 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.572282
26 Litouwen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.462709
27 Kroatië 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.417804
28 Spanje 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.387094
29 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.342765
30 Wit-Rusland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.337386
31 Verenigde Arabische Emiraten 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.241859
32 Letland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.197157
33 Bulgarije 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.169379
34 Rusland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.142872
35 Servië 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.0745877
36 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.0657328
37 Indië 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.0490719
38 Filippijnen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.0489485
39 Bosnië en Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.0324603
40 Jordanië 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.0100069
41 Turkije 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 -0.0383133
42 Zuid-Afrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0385376
43 Tunesië 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.0927338
44 Brazilië 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.103021
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.123219
46 Nieuw-Zeeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.126994
47 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.177184
48 Griekenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.19882
49 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.263641
50 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.350881
51 Indonesië -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.365108
52 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.410868
53 Macedonië -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.423583
54 Mauritius -0.429113
55 Australië -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.468001
56 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.52902
57 Kirgizië -0.570333
58 Namibië -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.572063
59 Dominicaanse Republiek -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.599903
60 Argentinië -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.622054
61 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.657155
62 Kazachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.703193
63 Moldavië 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.734169
64 Algerije -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.781585
65 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.808596
66 Cambodja -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.819875
67 Georgië -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.843737
68 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.852336
69 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.855573
70 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -0.987254
71 Albanië 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.997802
72 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.04279
73 Mali -1.06046
74 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.06616
75 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -1.09205
76 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.11161
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13868
78 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.19204
79 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -1.20526
80 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.20639
81 Ethiopië -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.3311
82 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.3774
83 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.56216
84 Mongolië -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.76497
85 Mauritanië -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.26649
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Roemenië 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saoedi-Arabië -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Congo, Republiek van de -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Oekraïne 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Congo, Democratische Republiek van de -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Koeweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Soedan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Oostenrijk 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syrië -0.670493
107 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Kameroen -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birma -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad en Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Nederland 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Oezbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbeidzjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenië 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422