The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.61516
2 Zuid-Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 2.37378
3 Zwitserland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.33787
4 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.25069
5 Duitsland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89207
6 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.47134
7 Tsjechische Republiek 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.42049
8 Verenigde Staten van Amerika 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.3899
9 Verenigd Koninkrijk 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.36113
10 Hongarije 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.24403
11 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.17832
12 Slowakije 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.16945
13 Italië 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.13343
14 Frankrijk 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.13204
15 Maleisië 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.12618
16 Ierland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.10564
17 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 1.00689
18 België 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.978514
19 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.75823
20 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.672875
21 Denemarken 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.662894
22 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.545405
23 Noorwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.518245
24 Kroatië 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.491664
25 Spanje 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.431715
26 Wit-Rusland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.426
27 Filippijnen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.389823
28 Bosnië en Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.368803
29 Verenigde Arabische Emiraten 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.304849
30 Litouwen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.252274
31 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.213795
32 Indië 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.141007
33 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.140373
34 Bulgarije 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.139368
35 Servië 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.114576
36 Rusland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.049962
37 Turkije 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.0317636
38 Letland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.0284908
39 Tunesië 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.00202402
40 Griekenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.0404171
41 Brazilië 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.0835801
42 Indonesië -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0852673
43 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 -0.116362
44 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.159627
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.19239
46 Jordanië 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.221577
47 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.274391
48 Zuid-Afrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.295213
49 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.382714
50 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.395968
51 Mauritius -0.40707
52 Kirgizië -0.457679
53 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.465951
54 Nieuw-Zeeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.472886
55 Moldavië 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.481255
56 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.501094
57 Dominicaanse Republiek -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.501275
58 Macedonië -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.606872
59 Georgië -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.634878
60 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.694666
61 Zweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 -0.714396
62 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.746684
63 Cambodja -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.750174
64 Kazachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.781491
65 Namibië -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.834151
66 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.845389
67 Albanië 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.871937
68 Argentinië -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.882143
69 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.899662
70 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.944238
71 Australië -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.972731
72 Algerije -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.99361
73 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.06909
74 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.0828
75 Mali -1.12138
76 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.12468
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13478
78 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.13883
79 Ethiopië -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.16391
80 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.18288
81 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -1.22746
82 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.23583
83 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.31897
84 Mongolië -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.67118
85 Mauritanië -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.34538
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Roemenië 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saoedi-Arabië -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Congo, Republiek van de -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Oekraïne 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Congo, Democratische Republiek van de -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Koeweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Soedan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Oostenrijk 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syrië -0.670493
107 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Kameroen -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Birma -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad en Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Nederland 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Oezbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbeidzjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenië 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422