The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
1 Japan 2.37352 2.31842 2.29751 2.27406 2.30938
2 Zwitserland 2.05181 1.99456 2.15805 2.22117 2.24386
3 Duitsland 1.84608 1.81367 2.09809 2.08459 2.07537
4 Singapore 1.71717 1.71171 1.746 1.79973 1.86534
5 Zweden 1.75214 1.6459 1.92429 1.86277 1.80773
6 Zuid-Korea 1.82762 1.90646 1.65462 1.69142 1.77613
7 Verenigde Staten van Amerika 1.43702 1.30167 1.8166 1.78168 1.75541
8 Finland 1.57477 1.49895 1.77048 1.72464 1.70679
9 Tsjechische Republiek 1.53381 1.52129 1.67011 1.66047 1.6431
10 Oostenrijk 1.72767 1.64981 1.68354 1.63921 1.62894
11 Verenigd Koninkrijk 1.45544 1.40296 1.6425 1.5493 1.53259
12 Slovenië 1.4359 1.41088 1.42499 1.44739 1.4319
13 Ierland 1.28901 1.22044 1.35298 1.40903 1.40023
14 Frankrijk 1.24155 1.15748 1.41803 1.40465 1.38964
15 Hongarije 1.43941 1.38229 1.35493 1.37204 1.38444
16 Slowakije 1.21794 1.20436 1.31956 1.34513 1.3402
17 Israël 1.22703 1.14081 1.23759 1.27878 1.3146
18 Nederland 0.818227 0.756212 1.31596 1.28874 1.30343
19 Denemarken 0.995356 0.95349 1.23141 1.21947 1.1577
20 Italië 1.21525 1.24155 1.11574 1.10767 1.11743
21 Mexico 0.846744 0.953003 1.15387 1.16038 1.09955
22 Noorwegen 0.614676 0.667969 1.21126 1.19882 1.09466
23 Polen 0.817343 0.839266 1.10641 1.09864 1.09432
24 Canada 0.421886 0.411362 1.12953 1.08422 1.05671
25 Maleisië 0.810485 0.828817 0.938148 0.995461 0.971372
26 Estland 0.68394 0.752262 0.86561 0.843983 0.898422
27 Rusland 0.048022 0.008439 0.855036 0.8547 0.852045
28 Spanje 0.700457 0.701443 0.820536 0.80013 0.777415
29 Saoedi-Arabië -0.462099 -0.369927 0.870754 0.819673 0.747155
30 Wit-Rusland 0.689295 0.731427 0.836874 0.743585 0.743075
31 Roemenië 0.751166 0.787654 0.561038 0.620618 0.713669
32 Thailand 0.87724 0.955651 0.590169 0.650521 0.711704
33 China 1.04036 1.16379 0.60941 0.642376 0.691307
34 Litouwen 0.673455 0.63807 0.667051 0.627923 0.675449
35 Letland 0.478137 0.431584 0.629273 0.649569 0.653054
36 Kroatië 0.822129 0.837178 0.657789 0.666972 0.623091
37 Brazilië 0.032264 -0.151225 0.696066 0.648284 0.608252
38 Hong Kong 1.26313 1.35236 0.426902 0.520167 0.594188
39 Oekraïne 0.28954 0.268345 0.658954 0.619115 0.556886
40 Servië 0.361921 0.366673 0.520936 0.546327 0.532947
41 Nieuw-Zeeland -0.096978 -0.119421 0.59338 0.488085 0.483484
42 Katar -0.41667 -0.264365 0.322636 0.499297 0.396207
43 Filippijnen 0.341858 0.477815 0.111666 0.220265 0.381087
44 Bosnië en Herzegovina 0.562599 0.578374 0.32009 0.328647 0.372865
45 Indië -0.134587 -0.014696 0.254162 0.31413 0.359807
46 Bulgarije 0.278113 0.290812 0.358694 0.327278 0.347659
47 Zuid-Afrika -0.192079 -0.204966 0.303549 0.28477 0.268797
48 Portugal 0.433862 0.4937 0.255319 0.26363 0.258555
49 Costa Rica 0.158575 0.093993 0.135131 0.231586 0.237988
50 Argentinië -0.496513 -0.502072 0.462111 0.360496 0.232335
51 Uruguay -0.330617 -0.349791 0.220677 0.177011 0.207869
52 Turkije 0.287393 0.378481 0.133999 0.150909 0.175726
53 Colombia -0.234596 -0.194463 0.0953318 0.11439 0.144356
54 Verenigde Arabische Emiraten -0.090032 -0.362895 0.124122 0.0911202 0.128674
55 Griekenland -0.210378 -0.167862 0.113201 0.106201 0.125884
56 Panama 0.710402 -0.558959 0.0789054 0.124958 0.119062
57 Koeweit -1.49314 -0.836979 0.25958 0.235139 0.11607
58 Kazachstan -0.961147 -1.00924 0.0243757 0.157371 0.0883664
59 Australië -0.816851 -0.846322 0.0971997 0.146237 0.0863035
60 Libanon 0.107992 0.177455 0.11624 0.0486427 0.0803256
61 Chili -0.499261 -0.532363 0.0316813 0.0611241 0.0443139
62 Trinidad en Tobago -0.219598 -0.174918 -0.0506048
63 Georgië -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.13572 -0.104348 -0.0587891
64 Oman -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.297732 -0.0404026 -0.0609077
65 Jordanië -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.0543591 -0.101439 -0.149852
66 Iran -0.934617 -0.157821 -0.158038
67 Jamaica -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.285952 -0.258965 -0.239734
68 Kirgizië -0.430339 -0.33118 -0.286814
69 Tunesië 0.16411 0.214778 -0.323836 -0.323494 -0.287626
70 Macedonië -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.39802 -0.379236 -0.290303
71 Indonesië -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.382548 -0.359668 -0.305644
72 Egypte -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.376617 -0.346329 -0.319753
73 El Salvador -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.518145 -0.491815 -0.336211
74 Dominicaanse Republiek -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.422355 -0.382253 -0.363374
75 Cuba -0.274702 -0.379871
76 Moldavië -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.388113 -0.475939 -0.464417
77 Oeganda -0.379853 -0.383244 -0.512514
78 Zambia -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.219831 -0.367271 -0.514087
79 Senegal -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.498182 -0.583953 -0.518687
80 Mauritius -0.666129 -0.638339 -0.579654
81 Peru -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.645699 -0.565693 -0.598962
82 Guatemala -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.555447 -0.57015 -0.616793
83 Vietnam -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.707104 -0.669703 -0.623084
84 Azerbeidzjan -1.44358 -1.7818 -0.674689 -0.650166 -0.654587
85 Venezuela -0.942948 -0.667168 -0.655229
86 Paraguay -0.982503 -1.10231 -0.63956 -0.767192 -0.676455
87 Honduras -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.844833 -0.765916 -0.744556
88 Syrië -0.633554 -0.744963
89 Kenia -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.690631 -0.705736 -0.747829
90 Mali -1.29791 -0.99785 -0.767797
91 Malawi -0.438195 -0.468412 -0.768715
92 Albanië -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.896511 -0.90769 -0.781571
93 Mongolië -1.67769 -1.55696 -0.851358 -0.767706 -0.78801
94 Algerije -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.01136 -0.937221 -0.811671
95 Zimbabwe -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.697917 -0.707958 -0.811801
96 Oezbekistan -0.873889 -0.895987 -0.847152
97 Liberia -0.719266 -0.98089 -0.854269
98 Pakistan -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.922811 -0.935143 -0.859978
99 Marokko -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.877951 -0.861004 -0.89235
100 Congo, Republiek van de -0.675039 -0.730753 -1.03802 -1.07835 -0.898092
101 Sri Lanka -0.530163 -0.369437 -1.05527 -0.972538 -0.901589
102 Ecuador -1.06674 -1.30875 -0.768335 -0.950771 -0.933232
103 Mauritanië -0.833422 -0.963114
104 Libië -1.26778 -0.965428
105 Jemen -1.34438 -0.912604 -0.757001 -0.97195
106 Kameroen -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.0069 -0.814567 -1.01371
107 Tanzania -0.919298 -1.03347 -0.879252 -0.97857 -1.01705
108 Bolivia -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.06538 -1.06344 -1.07744
109 Tadzjikistan -1.17436 -1.03731 -1.10384
110 Cote d'Ivoire -1.05279 -1.17654 -0.965066 -0.987537 -1.12772
111 Ghana -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.04762 -1.21682 -1.15388
112 Turkmenistan -1.48447 -1.27173 -1.19506
113 Gabon -1.06145 -1.36159 -1.22477
114 Mozambique -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.18598 -1.18114 -1.24908
115 Laos -1.21682 -1.19835 -1.25108
116 Ethiopië -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.31886 -1.30394 -1.27445
117 Angola -1.25745 -1.16876 -1.3177
118 Nicaragua -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.31615 -1.34285 -1.33756
119 Cambodja -0.904026 -0.723043 -1.47629 -1.44677 -1.37692
120 Soedan -1.873 -1.84461 -1.53738 -1.63482 -1.45787
121 Madagascar -0.823322 -0.820193 -1.49269 -1.47536 -1.45882
122 Guinea -2.17828 -1.22835 -1.44215 -1.51688
123 Bangladesh -1.17559 -1.76105 -1.77822 -1.71442
124 Nigeria -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.60088 -1.73247 -1.90268
125 Papoea-Nieuw-Guinea -1.75799 -2.00821
126 Togo -0.671987 -0.462205
127 Namibië -0.328879 -0.381863
128 Botswana -0.574288 -0.790862
129 België 0.951062 0.90581