The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Land 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japan 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.22938
2 Zwitserland 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.0544
3 Duitsland 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.95551
4 Zuid-Korea 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.79864
5 Zweden 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.75485
6 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.71625
7 Oostenrijk 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445 1.61209
8 Verenigd Koninkrijk 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.59265
9 Verenigde Staten van Amerika 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.58101
10 Tsjechische Republiek 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.57717
11 Finland 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829 1.55487
12 Slovenië 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199 1.44667
13 Ierland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.44421
14 Frankrijk 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.34955
15 Hongarije 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.29993
16 Slowakije 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.28447
17 Denemarken 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.23615
18 België 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 1.21917
19 Italië 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.21412
20 Israël 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.186
21 Polen 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.14721
22 Nederland 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275 1.10655
23 Noorwegen 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.03384
24 Estland 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.02913
25 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.932908
26 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.911251
27 Roemenië 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995 0.871347
28 Maleisië 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 0.865661
29 Spanje 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.841379
30 Kroatië 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.831182
31 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.767588
32 Saoedi-Arabië -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486 0.766112
33 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.749425
34 Wit-Rusland 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.723198
35 Litouwen 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.703753
36 Thailand 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247 0.671775
37 Letland 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.650211
38 Servië 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.581892
39 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.555
40 Bulgarije 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.53637
41 Bosnië en Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.482107
42 Rusland 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.467258
43 Oekraïne 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257 0.455412
44 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.441168
45 Filippijnen 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.434081
46 Turkije 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.404726
47 Nieuw-Zeeland 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.371123
48 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.3146
49 Libanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603 0.248075
50 Verenigde Arabische Emiraten 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.246693
51 Indië 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.236866
52 Brazilië 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.229095
53 Griekenland 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.222362
54 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.175781
55 Koeweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111 0.128739
56 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 0.112086
57 Macedonië -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 0.105846
58 Tunesië 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.0973685
59 Jordanië 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0687142
60 Trinidad en Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712 0.00787162
61 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.00253314
62 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.00355699
63 Zuid-Afrika 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0292484
64 Kirgizië -0.0461406
65 Egypte -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0702666
66 Katar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304 -0.131597
67 Georgië -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.136839
68 Kazachstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.140565
69 Australië -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.16901
70 Argentinië -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.179818
71 Chili -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.216857
72 Mauritius -0.245542
73 Indonesië -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.253646
74 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.26616
75 Moldavië 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.300825
76 Vietnam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.332587
77 Dominicaanse Republiek -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.352578
78 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617 -0.389103
79 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422 -0.392704
80 Oeganda -0.44042
81 Albanië 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.487843
82 Cuba -0.507612
83 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.53243
84 Azerbeidzjan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889 -0.545569
85 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544 -0.574449
86 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.579077
87 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.642897
88 Syrië -0.670493 -0.644997
89 Kenia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392 -0.658893
90 Oezbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504 -0.663603
91 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.666548
92 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.68778
93 Algerije -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.715288
94 Liberia -0.7467
95 Marokko -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.75663
96 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948 -0.803681
97 Cambodja -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.860402
98 Mali -0.885402
99 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.897424
100 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.988196
101 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.989348
102 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788 -1.00243
103 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.00641
104 Libië -1.05141
105 Ethiopië -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.06155
106 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505 -1.06876
107 Tadzjikistan -1.07242
108 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269 -1.09992
109 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136 -1.10671
110 Mongolië -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.11654
111 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559 -1.22314
112 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239 -1.22629
113 Congo, Republiek van de -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235 -1.28535
114 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.32037
115 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.41096
116 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163 -1.432
117 Soedan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774 -1.43747
118 Jemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363 -1.46949
119 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491 -1.51738
120 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177 -1.54415
121 Mauritanië -1.86292 -1.6776 -1.59462
122 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672 -1.61157
123 Malawi -1.6499
124 Kameroen -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906 -1.65947
125 Papoea-Nieuw-Guinea -1.74395
126 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331 -1.9858
127 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
128 Namibië -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
129 Congo, Democratische Republiek van de -1.06695 -1.29544
130 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
131 Birma -1.27821