The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

País 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Japão 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.22938
2 Suíça 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.0544
3 Alemanha 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.95551
4 Coreia do Sul 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.79864
5 Suécia 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.75485
6 Cingapura 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.71625
7 Áustria 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445 1.61209
8 Reino Unido 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.59265
9 Estados Unidos 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.58101
10 República Checa 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.57717
11 Finlândia 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829 1.55487
12 Eslovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199 1.44667
13 Irlanda 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.44421
14 França 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.34955
15 Hungria 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.29993
16 Eslováquia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.28447
17 Dinamarca 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.23615
18 Bélgica 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 1.21917
19 Itália 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.21412
20 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.186
21 Polônia 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.14721
22 Holanda 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275 1.10655
23 Noruega 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.03384
24 Estônia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.02913
25 México 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.932908
26 China 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.911251
27 Romênia 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995 0.871347
28 Malásia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 0.865661
29 Espanha 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.841379
30 Croácia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.831182
31 Canadá 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.767588
32 Arábia Saudita -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486 0.766112
33 Hong Kong 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.749425
34 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.723198
35 Lituânia 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.703753
36 Tailândia 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247 0.671775
37 Látvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.650211
38 Sérvia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.581892
39 Portugal 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.555
40 Bulgária 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.53637
41 Bósnia e Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.482107
42 Rússia 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.467258
43 Ucrânia 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257 0.455412
44 Panamá 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.441168
45 Filipinas 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.434081
46 Turquia 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.404726
47 Nova Zelândia 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.371123
48 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.3146
49 Líbano 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603 0.248075
50 Emirados Árabes Unidos 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.246693
51 Índia 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.236866
52 Brasil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.229095
53 Grécia 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.222362
54 Uruguai 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.175781
55 Kuweit -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111 0.128739
56 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 0.112086
57 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 0.105846
58 Tunísia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.0973685
59 Jordânia 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0687142
60 Trinidad e Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712 0.00787162
61 Colômbia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.00253314
62 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.00355699
63 África do Sul 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.0292484
64 Quirguistão -0.0461406
65 Egito -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0702666
66 Catar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304 -0.131597
67 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.136839
68 Cazaquistão -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.140565
69 Austrália -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.16901
70 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.179818
71 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.216857
72 Maurício -0.245542
73 Indonésia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.253646
74 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.26616
75 Moldávia 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.300825
76 Vietnã -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.332587
77 República Dominicana -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.352578
78 Irã -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617 -0.389103
79 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422 -0.392704
80 Uganda -0.44042
81 Albânia 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.487843
82 Cuba -0.507612
83 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.53243
84 Azerbaijão -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889 -0.545569
85 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544 -0.574449
86 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.579077
87 Paraguai -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.642897
88 Síria -0.670493 -0.644997
89 Quênia -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392 -0.658893
90 Uzbequistão -0.555588 -0.531504 -0.663603
91 Paquistão -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.666548
92 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.68778
93 Argélia -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.715288
94 Libéria -0.7467
95 Marrocos -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.75663
96 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948 -0.803681
97 Camboja -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.860402
98 Mali -0.885402
99 Zimbábue -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.897424
100 Laos -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.988196
101 Equador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.989348
102 Turquemenistão -1.00593 -1.09788 -1.00243
103 Tanzânia -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.00641
104 Líbia -1.05141
105 Etiópia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.06155
106 Nicarágua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505 -1.06876
107 Tadjiquistão -1.07242
108 Bolívia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269 -1.09992
109 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136 -1.10671
110 Mongólia -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.11654
111 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559 -1.22314
112 Zâmbia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239 -1.22629
113 Congo, República do -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235 -1.28535
114 Madagáscar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.32037
115 Gana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.41096
116 Gabão -0.829728 -1.36163 -1.432
117 Sudão -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774 -1.43747
118 Iémen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363 -1.46949
119 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491 -1.51738
120 Nigéria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177 -1.54415
121 Mauritânia -1.86292 -1.6776 -1.59462
122 Moçambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672 -1.61157
123 Malavi -1.6499
124 Camarões -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906 -1.65947
125 Papua Nova Guiné -1.74395
126 Guiné -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331 -1.9858
127 Togo -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
128 Namíbia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842
129 Congo, República Democrática do -1.06695 -1.29544
130 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179
131 Birmânia -1.27821