The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972
1 Almanya 2.29043 2.28258 2.30919 2.24741 2.29945
2 İsviçre 2.1625 2.09088 2.13549 2.01508 2.04004
3 Büyük Britanya 2.0158 2.03973 2.0578 2.03752 2.03438
4 İsveç 2.05498 1.97973 1.98691 1.91456 2.03225
5 Japonya 1.92797 1.94451 1.97001 1.93272 1.98772
6 Avusturya 1.98078 1.92701 1.99157 1.96936 1.94613
7 İtalya 1.81562 1.80442 1.84658 1.81948 1.8205
8 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.80736 1.82113 1.75874 1.69342 1.71798
9 Fransa 1.75071 1.73018 1.73046 1.69848 1.66878
10 Belçika 1.53657 1.52145 1.46409 1.48649 1.47614
11 Finlandiya 1.38039 1.45759 1.42408 1.35226 1.37407
12 Danimarka 1.30555 1.32305 1.38827 1.35966 1.37284
13 Hong Kong 1.28635 1.26272 1.28574 1.22027 1.24999
14 Hollanda 1.30488 1.28544 1.28366 1.24771 1.24832
15 Norveç 1.38974 1.38927 1.31026 1.24371 1.23394
16 Macaristan 1.10248 1.02343 1.01005 1.01019 0.977467
17 İrlanda 0.948167 0.879141 0.967741 1.00326 0.966161
18 Zimbabve 0.922071 1.08494 1.15234 1.1095 0.959187
19 İspanya 0.602475 0.805464 0.864415 0.916294 0.921629
20 Portekiz 0.895702 0.946908 0.940221 0.947728 0.897661
21 Polonya 0.882682 0.893808 0.833854 0.875648 0.844756
22 Romanya 0.464902 0.633043 0.606859 0.697563 0.740619
23 Kanada 0.803205 0.829068 0.671882 0.709441 0.723165
24 İsrail 0.627411 0.712611 0.617849 0.64909 0.692241
25 El Salvador 0.579651 0.547753 0.565368 0.554931 0.678434
26 Lübnan 0.490028 0.533752 0.647574 0.599343 0.631402
27 Güney Kore 0.708068 0.732955 0.621873 0.627842 0.626045
28 Katar -1.61823 -0.645333 -0.07853 0.046028 0.609986
29 Bulgaristan 0.486855 0.530517 0.514371 0.588835 0.589544
30 Kostarika 0.659682 0.543581 0.585106 0.474371 0.577735
31 Panama 0.900246 0.885879 0.933754 0.606507 0.543671
32 Çin 0.564777 0.541641 0.56752 0.525819 0.514375
33 Trinidad ve Tobago 0.019173 0.136406 0.01314 0.351749 0.44187
34 Yeni Zelanda 0.116224 0.122129 0.136762 0.22548 0.353045
35 Meksika 0.036176 0.113615 0.256898 0.348713 0.319915
36 Ürdün 0.495193 0.596004 0.597902 0.689381 0.319037
37 Uruguay 0.335919 0.180582 0.261768 0.298024 0.271904
38 Guetamala 0.205069 0.351906 0.321518 0.314459 0.240257
39 Yunanistan 0.172181 0.117929 0.263971 0.314837 0.221012
40 Singapur 0.256625 0.131842 0.063316 0.010946 0.207166
41 Nikaragua 0.080425 0.111926 0.237144 0.158069 0.168931
42 Hindistan -0.069321 0.052822 0.146517 0.151577 0.111218
43 Arnavutluk 0.056063 0.061086 -0.024968 0.089795 0.09419
44 Mısır -0.152495 -0.214962 -0.136492 -0.026385 0.084044
45 Şili -0.20273 -0.017258 -0.071417 0.013151 0.065106
46 Avustralya 0.268314 0.135157 0.068696 0.057807 0.043605
47 Arjantin -0.2747 -0.248754 -0.139189 -0.117285 -0.021875
48 Kolombiya -0.168593 -0.360003 -0.193596 -0.118563 -0.088109
49 Fas -0.387013 -0.411634 -0.315138 -0.194403 -0.18728
50 Vietnam -0.015737 -0.201158 -0.021656 -0.234389 -0.195863
51 Jamaika -0.343456 -0.358714 -0.259814 -0.207051 -0.205072
52 Tunus -0.239807 -0.084226 -0.134677 -0.214765 -0.277761
53 Güney Afrika -0.383453 -0.409667 -0.365206 -0.288454 -0.290437
54 Senegal -0.377609 -0.425614 -0.503889 -0.449499 -0.308306
55 Pakistan -0.367673 -0.368162 -0.231935 -0.247639 -0.317045
56 Kenya -0.731571 -0.752076 -0.574831 -0.289811 -0.374348
57 Suriye -0.255758 -0.502398 -0.433337 -0.289283 -0.387965
58 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.826126 -0.558 -0.688536 -0.443618 -0.40791
59 Honduras -0.197737 -0.20942 -0.177444 -0.273195 -0.409435
60 Türkiye -0.864073 -0.850097 -0.545683 -0.515846 -0.467437
61 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri 1.02527 0.693872 -0.734606 -0.325083 -0.483392
62 Kuveyt -1.10223 -0.991073 -0.916529 -0.707222 -0.530043
63 Togo -1.01094 -1.36065 -1.07225 -0.6516 -0.533978
64 Brezilya -0.702449 -0.565923 -0.54633 -0.614586 -0.546039
65 Filipinler -0.479011 -0.540272 -0.477216 -0.447083 -0.55777
66 Venezuela -0.394938 -0.424707 -0.687622 -0.88009 -0.572191
67 Cezayir -0.469397 -0.521161 -0.492765 -0.387895 -0.581162
68 Bangladeş -0.583664
69 Paraguay -0.587674 -0.674242 -0.503316 -0.492994 -0.612634
70 Malezya -0.439566 -0.579548 -0.678805 -0.882138 -0.719569
71 Tayland -0.870876 -0.841727 -0.826566 -0.852995 -0.778683
72 Bolivya -0.876756 -0.926964 -0.792537 -0.780383 -0.795227
73 Peru -0.697814 -0.688604 -0.907499 -0.826122 -0.795581
74 İran -0.823465 -0.76819 -0.82755 -0.805196 -0.832824
75 Madagaskar -1.0524 -1.05855 -1.00788 -0.962487 -0.889362
76 Mozambik -0.869069 -0.821813 -0.80825 -0.795592 -0.900928
77 Laos -0.815614 -0.923599 -0.641542 -0.73136 -0.92082
78 Suudi Arabistan -0.943115 -0.62291 -0.879255 -1.01507 -0.924268
79 Moritanya -1.01189 -0.541496 -0.604379 -0.632401 -0.934725
80 Kamerun -0.758248 -0.843236 -0.817342 -0.935888 -0.958583
81 Gana -0.773767 -0.851496 -1.05177 -0.993839 -1.04168
82 Birmanya -1.06872 -1.13729 -1.1461 -1.37593 -1.05842
83 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -0.857768 -0.844418 -0.96419 -0.964024 -1.07979
84 Gine -1.09043 -1.16134 -1.102 -0.846298 -1.08984
85 Kamboçya -0.870425 -0.922801 -1.19009 -1.07522 -1.10812
86 Ekvador -0.891331 -0.911034 -0.998564 -1.07145 -1.11334
87 Sri Lanka -1.11778 -0.908343 -0.94655 -1.0083 -1.11622
88 Umman -1.33728 -1.40809 -1.1488 -1.35187 -1.13284
89 Fildişi Sahili -1.00629 -1.18414 -1.10706 -1.23779 -1.14784
90 Etiyopya -0.932435 -0.87046 -1.02267 -1.03374 -1.15615
91 Tanzanya -1.23856 -1.30574 -1.23245 -1.25281 -1.27276
92 Zambiya -0.792187 -0.842796 -1.29254 -1.19932 -1.27385
93 Angora -1.23318 -1.22352 -1.20874 -1.32727 -1.28119
94 Sudan -1.18166 -1.39571 -1.30781 -1.54086 -1.3197
95 Gabon -1.24293 -1.41464 -1.24468 -1.62498 -1.3714
96 Endonezya -1.10962 -1.0897 -1.26172 -1.35609 -1.4636
97 Nijerya -1.43376 -1.6612 -1.70208 -1.86444 -2.02801