The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977
1 Almanya 2.31199 2.1881 2.0945 1.88162 1.91189
2 İsveç 2.0072 1.97976 1.94479 1.78681 1.81863
3 Japonya 2.06442 1.89414 1.88449 1.71844 1.79081
4 Avusturya 1.88468 1.90756 1.8608 1.70802 1.7341
5 İsviçre 1.98867 1.93517 1.82118 1.69141 1.73321
6 Büyük Britanya 2.04552 1.93043 1.8346 1.6602 1.72792
7 İtalya 1.79484 1.73502 1.66015 1.55495 1.57614
8 Fransa 1.61751 1.65195 1.58377 1.49599 1.54568
9 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.67185 1.63622 1.52574 1.40271 1.48685
10 Belçika 1.44249 1.47628 1.49865 1.36239 1.34301
11 Finlandiya 1.34622 1.41397 1.41914 1.27995 1.29729
12 Danimarka 1.35135 1.29079 1.32153 1.2192 1.22964
13 Norveç 1.38708 1.30666 1.22566 1.12291 1.20319
14 Ürdün 0.350396 0.359079 0.640662 1.04364 1.14715
15 Hollanda 1.2507 1.1773 1.13294 1.01535 1.06845
16 Lübnan 0.695391 0.761648 0.712371 0.922862 0.978699
17 İrlanda 1.01993 1.04279 1.07572 0.930576 0.950345
18 Kuveyt -0.580382 -0.671988 -0.478695 0.997675 0.938192
19 İspanya 0.903208 0.950058 0.9951 0.821651 0.913434
20 Hong Kong 1.37248 1.14592 1.15176 0.968926 0.889431
21 İsrail 0.747705 0.77872 0.875202 0.815083 0.876125
22 Kanada 0.627947 0.66737 0.78543 0.81458 0.869288
23 Polonya 0.890208 0.879724 0.997645 0.868974 0.86358
24 Macaristan 0.962564 0.927532 0.966144 0.806986 0.854007
25 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri -1.16526 -0.491762 -1.15238 1.02117 0.786587
26 Suriye -0.35571 -0.202059 -0.12899 0.700835 0.769084
27 Portekiz 0.902619 0.82155 0.854045 0.69349 0.740047
28 Moğolistan 0.297181 0.300554 0.539567 0.712628
29 Güney Kore 0.761627 0.821309 0.829413 0.753741 0.682189
30 Bulgaristan 0.613131 0.770913 0.820792 0.7584 0.66881
31 Meksika 0.352259 0.583489 0.646014 0.643311 0.662488
32 Romanya 0.774934 0.671174 0.621123 0.605972 0.620529
33 Zimbabve 0.972448 1.00227 1.08859 0.761066 0.510551
34 Yunanistan 0.201106 0.32517 0.415036 0.555026 0.47587
35 Singapur 0.286793 0.296666 0.29783 0.318454 0.40171
36 Uruguay 0.322398 0.405485 0.408375 0.429916 0.348066
37 Umman -0.852098 -0.379688 -0.814211 1.0337 0.327238
38 Kostarika 0.53157 0.619416 0.607385 0.383784 0.301146
39 Hindistan 0.092628 0.170085 0.235067 0.260826 0.285061
40 Çin 0.543544 0.497583 0.484235 0.341003 0.278706
41 El Salvador 0.681508 0.659586 0.610358 0.368276 0.274197
42 Yeni Zelanda 0.462662 0.405668 0.293033 0.190948 0.262797
43 Kamboçya -1.02784 -0.62695 -0.342256 -0.150939 0.173955
44 Arjantin 0.117281 0.269263 0.390731 0.184318 0.129156
45 Panama 0.467348 0.483249 0.388707 0.273613 0.118599
46 Pakistan -0.280222 -0.101056 -0.025431 0.031359 0.079415
47 Mısır 0.118683 0.063234 0.077666 0.061756 0.061075
48 Jamaika 0.028676 0.107055 -0.01524 0.082339 0.039221
49 Guetamala 0.337624 0.261837 0.239749 0.064876 0.019909
50 Kolombiya 0.106428 0.253689 0.267366 0.141144 -0.015421
51 Katar -0.700533 -0.961946 -1.13544 0.343811 -0.027909
52 Türkiye -0.337298 -0.289211 -0.23484 0.015191 -0.036495
53 Avustralya 0.01988 0.002005 -0.044957 -0.088588 -0.050256
54 Güney Afrika -0.299252 -0.290143 -0.25239 -0.320777 -0.153402
55 Laos -0.866594 -0.909832 -0.714096 -0.68125 -0.15913
56 Fas -0.26061 -0.329085 -0.223595 -0.229217 -0.171619
57 Vietnam -0.189671 -0.150127 -0.10675 -0.326853 -0.224908
58 Tunus -0.191241 -0.109595 -0.026107 -0.171232 -0.242852
59 Şili 0.057265 -0.114033 0.011746 -0.254118 -0.253737
60 Nikaragua 0.028206 0.082136 0.05211 -0.199501 -0.255258
61 Brezilya -0.372521 -0.341572 -0.21511 -0.308122 -0.259673
62 Arnavutluk -0.064341 -0.170026 -0.138748 -0.171997 -0.267863
63 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.255854 -0.111751 -0.217707 -0.26608 -0.269721
64 Malezya -0.86161 -0.583411 -0.574961 -0.415963 -0.291443
65 Honduras -0.444479 -0.216776 -0.315171 -0.410047 -0.316132
66 Kenya -0.385182 -0.511042 -0.542436 -0.384282 -0.319238
67 Filipinler -0.600374 -0.481102 -0.189632 -0.177066 -0.3233
68 Tayland -0.636195 -0.512015 -0.51068 -0.484416 -0.40357
69 Senegal -0.311544 -0.338371 -0.328214 -0.612047 -0.472473
70 Trinidad ve Tobago 0.254467 0.171132 -0.091113 -0.254482 -0.503068
71 Peru -0.800638 -0.711308 -0.632461 -0.532239 -0.521048
72 Paraguay -0.481644 -0.493307 -0.402084 -0.656455 -0.531246
73 Bangladeş -0.380092 -0.233379 -0.539728 -0.915828 -0.750175
74 Moritanya -0.905246 -0.929071 -0.661912 -0.805415 -0.761595
75 Cezayir -0.634155 -0.772504 -0.658009 -0.81583 -0.822023
76 Sri Lanka -0.898494 -0.983562 -0.887723 -1.05163 -0.851707
77 Bolivya -0.980488 -1.04562 -0.996872 -0.926734 -0.870114
78 Togo -0.462118 -0.765912 -0.549275 -0.861637 -0.911725
79 Zambiya -1.09525 -1.00321 -0.868636 -0.911014 -0.937637
80 Mozambik -0.73104 -0.746801 -0.85923 -1.01832 -1.00105
81 Birmanya -0.868736 -0.926276 -1.10767 -1.00505 -1.04818
82 Etiyopya -1.07269 -1.03366 -0.994609 -1.02621 -1.05803
83 Kamerun -0.708526 -0.951974 -0.981177 -1.169 -1.13052
84 Tanzanya -1.16077 -1.24789 -1.25273 -1.24371 -1.13742
85 Fildişi Sahili -1.18693 -1.3391 -1.1907 -1.5193 -1.17047
86 Ekvador -1.04445 -0.934708 -1.04695 -1.16866 -1.18658
87 Venezuela -0.720852 -1.2073 -1.10367 -0.985057 -1.21212
88 Sudan -1.2759 -1.01438 -1.05126 -1.17056 -1.25543
89 Madagaskar -0.937656 -1.04524 -1.1211 -1.26861 -1.26945
90 İran -1.17204 -1.38935 -1.42703 -1.37322 -1.42882
91 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -1.17314 -1.22077 -1.21109 -1.51863 -1.50926
92 Gana -1.17829 -1.29589 -1.17729 -1.42182 -1.52408
93 Gabon -1.58036 -1.60746 -1.88408 -1.66631 -1.53803
94 Angora -1.15258 -1.14003 -1.24488 -1.37667 -1.54506
95 Endonezya -1.34541 -1.57939 -1.65005 -1.82354 -1.66825
96 Suudi Arabistan -1.46699 -1.89302 -1.88804 -1.48968 -1.87989
97 Gine -0.884032 -1.27342 -1.36993 -1.7674 -2.19914
98 Nijerya -2.01528 -2.06088 -2.09044 -2.47587 -2.21442