The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
1 Almanya 1.98571 2.13579 2.0861 2.01825 1.98445
2 İsveç 1.91341 1.95309 1.92992 1.93062 1.89183
3 Büyük Britanya 1.79062 1.84999 1.85741 1.8527 1.82493
4 Japonya 1.83684 1.94395 1.88833 1.83755 1.81597
5 İsviçre 1.813 1.99453 2.00572 1.92464 1.79668
6 Avusturya 1.81273 1.93101 1.88666 1.84022 1.79374
7 Fransa 1.62775 1.68432 1.6675 1.61752 1.64914
8 İtalya 1.6234 1.69198 1.64847 1.62263 1.64022
9 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.44382 1.50259 1.5004 1.51882 1.46216
10 Finlandiya 1.34838 1.35975 1.46544 1.36337 1.43566
11 Belçika 1.39968 1.42368 1.4946 1.49442 1.43398
12 Danimarka 1.32044 1.34456 1.36878 1.35121 1.36344
13 İrlanda 1.13131 1.1536 1.21233 1.27098 1.23034
14 Hollanda 1.07978 1.16236 1.14066 1.15826 1.11056
15 İspanya 1.00921 1.05235 1.06151 1.04731 1.08526
16 İsrail 0.856037 0.781789 0.841083 1.07216 1.08025
17 Polonya 0.833613 0.885866 0.983217 1.02368 1.01759
18 Norveç 1.13072 1.06658 1.02257 0.966306 0.999488
19 Kamboçya 0.418704 0.686277 0.953869 1.1079 0.967635
20 Macaristan 0.911598 0.944537 0.927901 0.950599 0.961064
21 Portekiz 0.766385 0.862483 0.84277 0.841855 0.910184
22 Kanada 0.846039 0.833572 0.857068 0.94163 0.905164
23 Güney Kore 0.767752 0.819243 0.85489 0.902423 0.885554
24 Hong Kong 0.911861 0.928507 0.899815 0.830525 0.837076
25 Ürdün 1.10643 1.0003 0.90679 0.758856 0.820758
26 Romanya 0.703638 0.696607 0.607707 0.648055 0.722751
27 Bulgaristan 0.665983 0.675666 0.633252 0.681308 0.708309
28 Lübnan 0.932121 0.67831 0.581226 0.587277 0.666476
29 Yeni Zelanda 0.290817 0.293272 0.287538 0.417413 0.411588
30 Panama 0.190321 0.133036 0.225306 0.37013 0.390468
31 Meksika 0.600371 0.533398 0.448728 0.483624 0.37141
32 El Salvador 0.331769 0.286214 0.192411 0.293248 0.366672
33 Yunanistan 0.447339 0.272871 0.141741 0.317374 0.354312
34 Arnavutluk 0.027023 -0.074055 0.420676 0.242285 0.347362
35 Uruguay 0.276794 0.33441 0.34675 0.308764 0.336185
36 Çin 0.291819 0.299534 0.320765 0.320562 0.313648
37 Brezilya -0.181274 -0.106942 0.067672 0.117213 0.286643
38 Singapur 0.274431 0.169053 0.160756 0.216724 0.277628
39 Türkiye -0.113783 -0.141234 -0.088335 0.064652 0.267097
40 Hindistan 0.272973 0.25889 0.27281 0.282423 0.265235
41 Guetamala 0.029384 0.079735 0.103098 0.171701 0.242111
42 Kostarika 0.30829 0.354579 0.359232 0.284733 0.214813
43 Kolombiya -0.191699 -0.15778 -0.220389 -0.021815 0.198478
44 Kuveyt 0.66765 0.034041 0.110441 0.150772 0.191197
45 Tunus -0.263188 -0.163192 -0.078853 -0.044769 0.097075
46 Avustralya -0.038578 -0.044982 -0.094969 -0.147273 -0.007137
47 Laos -0.116997 -0.110284 0.013824 0.088764 -0.015012
48 Arjantin 0.100627 -0.030212 -0.100055 -0.088912 -0.04017
49 Jamaika 0.111522 -0.108446 -0.078034 -0.013388 -0.066094
50 Pakistan 0.099332 0.031184 -0.115404 -0.13179 -0.073382
51 Güney Afrika -0.225034 -0.149801 -0.085272 -0.082639 -0.084774
52 Suriye 0.720633 0.165746 -0.402598 -0.359806 -0.1311
53 Fas -0.153656 -0.155585 -0.167354 -0.167639 -0.136266
54 Filipinler -0.145795 -0.212291 -0.140206 -0.153217 -0.13915
55 Moğolistan 0.6664 0.517489 0.186925 0.175424 -0.142225
56 Senegal -0.564835 -0.521327 -0.502146 -0.22909 -0.164245
57 Tayland -0.269411 -0.199437 -0.178685 -0.152445 -0.174918
58 Nikaragua -0.164669 -0.105189 -0.110342 -0.232164 -0.194655
59 Trinidad ve Tobago -0.179923 -0.395649 -0.693578 -0.282267 -0.195771
60 Şili -0.192636 -0.300832 -0.231075 -0.201121 -0.206138
61 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.055693 -0.15358 -0.198638 -0.241778 -0.242779
62 Katar -0.796915 0.112702 0.307791 -0.195983 -0.301367
63 Malezya -0.195103 -0.304213 -0.364096 -0.39127 -0.301706
64 Peru -0.600074 -0.220861 -0.165561 -0.285008 -0.38563
65 Zimbabve 0.14211 0.352027 -0.514413 -0.60849 -0.395937
66 Honduras -0.398216 -0.579062 -0.525357 -0.524518 -0.423259
67 Mozambik -0.918985 -0.484657 -0.580247 -0.623075 -0.47178
68 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri 0.216543 -0.105964 0.171413 -0.075462 -0.47584
69 Kenya -0.262464 -0.35219 -0.319034 -0.389878 -0.490322
70 Mısır -0.00279 -0.154764 -0.377018 -0.558607 -0.537723
71 Vietnam -0.203335 -0.438961 -0.322191 -0.349642 -0.611483
72 Bangladeş -0.546402 -0.581606 -0.473513 -0.58621 -0.629682
73 Sri Lanka -0.807947 -0.61599 -0.585217 -0.603583 -0.640165
74 Ekvador -1.32066 -1.11174 -0.644096 -0.780416 -0.691914
75 Birmanya -0.882072 -0.830871 -0.807171 -0.667566 -0.694097
76 Zambiya -0.85791 -0.780084 -0.732815 -0.51962 -0.704497
77 Etiyopya -1.07115 -1.19928 -1.17153 -1.05514 -0.7192
78 Umman -0.509484 -0.612259 -0.124307 -0.036912 -0.719467
79 Tanzanya -1.22402 -1.11669 -0.88241 -0.881603 -0.793757
80 Paraguay -0.67204 -0.767292 -0.914223 -0.900972 -0.857857
81 Bolivya -0.851629 -1.14398 -0.904911 -1.03484 -0.895974
82 Moritanya -1.10609 -1.39294 -1.24662 -1.25527 -0.934538
83 Venezuela -1.08701 -1.04601 -1.36645 -1.35676 -1.04203
84 Sudan -1.29886 -1.19936 -1.25879 -1.14672 -1.06056
85 Cezayir -0.939733 -0.844654 -0.754751 -1.0883 -1.11657
86 Fildişi Sahili -1.18251 -1.04431 -1.08692 -1.02644 -1.16171
87 İran -1.23625 -1.31155 -1.38935 -1.11731 -1.19522
88 Madagaskar -1.28706 -1.21443 -1.10889 -0.979658 -1.25712
89 Kamerun -1.25489 -1.16546 -1.34147 -1.50593 -1.30103
90 Gana -1.19743 -1.19881 -1.07721 -1.16804 -1.40758
91 Kongo Demokratik Cumhuriyeti -1.49539 -1.57941 -1.49485
92 Gabon -1.31778 -1.39642 -1.37809 -1.48457 -1.5229
93 Togo -1.19283 -1.0105 -1.31044 -1.26752 -1.57902
94 Endonezya -1.36404 -1.58526 -1.66024 -1.64905 -1.59288
95 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -1.24883 -1.13528 -1.19202 -1.66323 -1.67642
96 Gine -1.96201 -2.18704 -1.76414 -1.69511 -1.74614
97 Angora -1.43599 -1.4835 -1.43557 -1.70915 -1.76865
98 Nijerya -2.31682 -2.2981 -2.36218 -1.97928 -2.14511
99 Suudi Arabistan -2.29486 -1.71692 -2.1413 -2.17624 -2.17477