The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
1 Japonya 2.41259 2.54183 2.55927 2.62482 2.53902
2 Almanya 2.28213 2.29872 2.30351 2.33549 2.25612
3 İsviçre 2.28569 2.24492 2.26769 2.2797 2.22311
4 İsveç 2.22944 2.21793 2.14061 2.15152 2.10031
5 Avusturya 2.0734 2.12007 2.07826 2.03268 1.91867
6 Finlandiya 1.89635 1.9172 1.87757 1.93772 1.90875
7 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.73991 1.82759 1.77051 1.83305 1.82767
8 Büyük Britanya 1.90245 1.8913 1.81848 1.80903 1.82057
9 Fransa 1.72926 1.71064 1.69969 1.60763 1.58323
10 İtalya 1.73817 1.73744 1.68699 1.63958 1.55468
11 Danimarka 1.72646 1.77819 1.59706 1.52388 1.51091
12 Belçika 1.53536 1.50225 1.50236 1.43024 1.46882
13 Çek Cumhuriyeti 1.33772 1.39329 1.4509 1.42569 1.40372
14 İrlanda 1.43868 1.41344 1.31883 1.34091 1.37233
15 Slovenya 1.38116 1.39101 1.42703 1.3489 1.34636
16 Hollanda 1.34249 1.38627 1.31958 1.33851 1.28338
17 Slovakya 1.20247 1.23843 1.26368 1.21663 1.23372
18 İspanya 1.25191 1.22672 1.26353 1.19306 1.17464
19 Güney Kore 0.821888 0.855669 0.9454 1.02663 1.14944
20 İsrail 1.23457 1.22134 1.11366 1.07941 1.11492
21 Singapur 0.857566 0.940113 1.0629 1.08779 0.983781
22 Macaristan 0.856917 0.929671 1.00057 0.916166 0.92667
23 Kanada 0.652211 0.819512 0.856119 0.891053 0.842988
24 Norveç 0.855982 0.836537 0.755938 0.761752 0.829814
25 Polonya 0.550205 0.600638 0.659829 0.752045 0.801098
26 Meksika 0.807204 0.826065 0.785075 0.713387 0.742549
27 Hırvatistan 0.889459 0.818057 0.824962 0.74655 0.727172
28 Brezilya 0.471776 0.512414 0.558738 0.529039 0.609912
29 Ukrayna 0.127406 0.122931 0.062267 0.568178 0.5933
30 Estonya 0.217702 0.256368 0.457924 0.545415 0.514904
31 Bulgaristan 0.409459 0.364839 0.323871 0.34916 0.501917
32 Bosna Hersek 0.760914 0.673995 0.635623 0.580926 0.492681
33 Hong Kong 0.613528 0.527659 0.594131 0.471498 0.489159
34 Belarus 0.472178 0.378847 0.477808 0.607991 0.471432
35 Rusya 0.057938 0.061145 0.148674 0.297075 0.469322
36 Romanya 0.55807 0.426141 0.469295 0.48008 0.467421
37 Malezya 0.115417 0.02807 0.258514 0.330865 0.454003
38 Azerbeycan -0.133873 -0.184645 -0.220812 0.295336 0.440148
39 Portekiz 0.479471 0.365271 0.407458 0.403863 0.420509
40 Yeni Zelanda 0.369015 0.424029 0.44124 0.33429 0.34167
41 Çin 0.170488 0.089156 0.234956 0.221438 0.328308
42 Litvanya 0.159148 0.07006 0.063567 0.262575 0.282998
43 Güney Afrika 0.024123 0.113564 0.108519 0.172478 0.252567
44 Letonya -0.043451 -0.149621 0.046373 0.247579 0.24158
45 Georgia -0.039227 -0.014192 0.458729 0.37478 0.20617
46 Uruguay 0.137513 0.287779 0.317795 0.281436 0.186327
47 Moldova 0.542856 0.360477 0.284536 0.209032 0.180126
48 Kazakistan -0.150128 -0.170424 0.059747 0.320195 0.170617
49 Tayland 0.140791 0.114266 0.134664 0.08527 0.170387
50 Yunanistan 0.099136 -0.006531 0.006074 0.029853 0.151935
51 Makedonya 0.402287 0.237408 0.251441 0.167876 0.132217
52 Hindistan 0.025898 -0.024145 0.066093 0.034912 0.101682
53 Türkiye 0.092905 0.035269 0.102971 0.003711 0.099291
54 Ürdün -0.012239 0.002117 -0.026579 -0.028269 0.060741
55 Lübnan 0.096162 0.126785 0.055535 -0.042066 0.014512
56 Arjantin -0.010048 -0.02758 0.010787 -0.01855 0.012858
57 Trinidad ve Tobago 0.280493 0.224247 -0.019194 0.049676 0.01063
58 Kolombiya -0.092689 -0.137058 -0.057388 -0.052715 0.003091
59 Avustralya -0.038421 -0.009273 0.04147 0.027905 -0.00787
60 Panama 0.139468 0.124251 0.091303 -0.035657 -0.014804
61 El Salvador 0.240982 0.148981 -0.018033 -0.191735 -0.111639
62 Kostarika -0.039951 -0.155692 -0.202471 -0.259614 -0.11906
63 Venezuela -0.328245 -0.187383 -0.084909 -0.082202 -0.131131
64 Suudi Arabistan -0.241864 0.154833 0.042888 -0.004363 -0.142044
65 Guetamala -0.106833 -0.040386 -0.006738 -0.09217 -0.183695
66 Filipinler -0.146981 -0.108895 -0.119353 -0.264709 -0.193581
67 Şili -0.365605 -0.296188 -0.197503 -0.236143 -0.22503
68 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri -0.458894 -0.422395 -0.350496 -0.41129 -0.242739
69 Özbekistan -0.36545 -0.577566 -0.695181 -0.329384 -0.257701
70 Endonezya -0.506392 -0.489321 -0.366439 -0.386413 -0.263329
71 Zimbabve -0.633409 -0.453192 -0.294163 -0.243137 -0.366698
72 Arnavutluk -0.195093 -0.179171 -0.286801 -0.377064 -0.404282
73 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.507464 -0.598513 -0.496314 -0.469361 -0.453478
74 Peru -0.411949 -0.52763 -0.431251 -0.425053 -0.453811
75 Kuveyt -0.37915 -0.534725 -0.907519 -0.637936 -0.456562
76 Tunus -0.047817 -0.13953 -0.149132 -0.454045 -0.521211
77 Mısır -0.374028 -0.403994 -0.446871 -0.46767 -0.535714
78 Mozambik -0.153745 -0.26666 -0.45673 -0.831413 -0.569856
79 Türkmenistan -0.83731 -0.920734 -0.737921 -0.795773 -0.613978
80 Laos -0.781282 -0.703118 -0.817567 -0.54968 -0.647999
81 Nikaragua -0.365774 -0.351296 -0.611364 -0.759552 -0.658495
82 Kenya -0.960591 -0.798098 -0.61515 -0.555286 -0.667525
83 Moğolistan -0.293334 -0.451942 -0.540687 -0.635697 -0.671654
84 Jamaika -0.394466 -0.569588 -0.64307 -0.740573 -0.679477
85 Paraguay -0.961847 -0.804891 -0.612841 -0.645988 -0.682574
86 Umman -0.732341 -0.40115 -0.67748 -0.498061 -0.685378
87 Honduras -0.581544 -0.603182 -0.647264 -0.716076 -0.695074
88 Katar -0.618398 -0.322743 -0.619172 -0.606565 -0.709645
89 Fas -0.504796 -0.668407 -0.618859 -0.768595 -0.720285
90 İran -1.32054 -1.15496 -0.972758 -0.854963 -0.731991
91 Bolivya -0.930338 -0.871765 -0.784781 -0.670547 -0.761067
92 Sri Lanka -0.474121 -0.655767 -0.681331 -0.818788 -0.782064
93 Cezayir -0.770482 -0.635657 -0.787497 -0.72511 -0.814718
94 Pakistan -0.70854 -0.817542 -0.79391 -0.831704 -0.81523
95 Senegal -0.92972 -1.09304 -0.794811 -1.14286 -0.839209
96 Vietnam -1.04231 -1.04169 -0.928968 -0.885671 -0.841634
97 Zambiya -0.98827 -1.06644 -0.891487 -0.874625 -0.95923
98 Sudan -1.00416 -0.884069 -0.919266 -0.97249 -0.996098
99 Ekvador -0.955749 -0.968503 -1.0181 -1.06839 -1.01785
100 Suriye -0.92472 -0.734558 -0.91366 -1.08399 -1.05905
101 Kamboçya -1.01317 -1.02126 -0.985304 -0.931056 -1.05982
102 Bangladeş -0.840842 -0.921693 -0.918699 -1.06387 -1.06811
103 Togo -0.75393 -1.28427 -1.377 -1.31135 -1.12366
104 Madagaskar -1.15521 -1.08774 -1.0196 -1.14395 -1.12751
105 Moritanya -1.18484 -1.14335 -1.22374 -1.32609 -1.13999
106 Tanzanya -1.21508 -1.13622 -1.26575 -1.31053 -1.21963
107 Birmanya -1.28022 -1.19653 -1.25906 -1.25981 -1.2446
108 Yemen -0.654439 -0.585367 -0.990987 -1.33012 -1.25966
109 Gana -1.57914 -1.66955 -1.64302 -1.36653 -1.27141
110 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -1.45875 -1.52143 -1.41008 -0.845544 -1.29766
111 Etiyopya -0.916323 -0.729946 -1.02858 -1.20396 -1.33563
112 Fildişi Sahili -1.69313 -1.56816 -1.53247 -1.2875 -1.37382
113 Kongo Demokratik Cumhuriyeti -1.43311 -1.38968 -1.32594 -1.32809 -1.38505
114 Gabon -1.46737 -1.60925 -1.34952 -1.25007 -1.5865
115 Gine -1.28595 -1.216 -1.27707 -1.34948 -1.64311
116 Kamerun -1.95829 -1.86519 -1.70179 -1.6158 -1.73434
117 Angora -1.46963 -1.26224 -1.70503 -1.75814 -1.79175
118 Nijerya -2.01377 -2.08403 -2.08757 -2.10242 -2.15015