The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
1 Japonya 2.48434 2.51283 2.53454 2.52662 2.61165
2 Almanya 2.20218 2.26714 2.26168 2.23828 2.2377
3 İsviçre 2.20498 2.20565 2.18502 2.24412 2.19269
4 İsveç 1.96355 1.9692 1.97269 1.98924 2.0381
5 Büyük Britanya 1.83921 1.95509 1.97386 1.9704 1.99456
6 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.81703 1.85634 1.86251 1.85189 1.87944
7 Finlandiya 1.89548 1.89805 1.85628 1.85446 1.86151
8 Avusturya 1.84365 1.80792 1.79399 1.73102 1.72614
9 Singapur 1.09548 1.32845 1.55217 1.51534 1.62663
10 Fransa 1.54483 1.56021 1.58127 1.58792 1.60699
11 Çek Cumhuriyeti 1.43721 1.48955 1.5289 1.52518 1.56631
12 İrlanda 1.49523 1.39659 1.44934 1.45836 1.55977
13 Danimarka 1.49822 1.58105 1.58813 1.56798 1.54904
14 İtalya 1.47994 1.49433 1.48962 1.52985 1.48036
15 Slovenya 1.306 1.34999 1.39814 1.45239 1.42297
16 Belçika 1.48359 1.45589 1.44647 1.40065 1.37079
17 Güney Kore 1.03141 1.10914 1.19698 1.23895 1.29563
18 Slovakya 1.2153 1.20047 1.24483 1.2636 1.23843
19 Hollanda 1.2877 1.27953 1.31034 1.23203 1.15767
20 İspanya 1.09293 1.05449 1.10231 1.14719 1.15073
21 İsrail 1.14711 1.15445 1.22578 1.19289 1.10809
22 Macaristan 0.876291 0.780762 0.866768 0.992979 1.06683
23 Meksika 0.698187 0.78642 0.948962 0.905129 0.958907
24 Polonya 0.830855 0.814231 0.902565 0.939812 0.941757
25 Kanada 0.933069 0.853475 0.882912 0.864428 0.89244
26 Malezya 0.440481 0.471149 0.64597 0.615196 0.734542
27 Belarus 0.645948 0.607993 0.558912 0.842052 0.722964
28 Norveç 0.928205 0.840261 0.771729 0.712675 0.66816
29 Hırvatistan 0.677189 0.632074 0.665432 0.631126 0.638124
30 Hong Kong 0.326658 0.341021 0.466488 0.617995 0.588883
31 Portekiz 0.461456 0.448254 0.54534 0.554852 0.539252
32 Rusya 0.593549 0.600178 0.556283 0.580501 0.515668
33 Estonya 0.547724 0.474429 0.502223 0.584589 0.498964
34 Ukrayna 0.647333 0.562931 0.484355 0.458828 0.475434
35 Romanya 0.491754 0.464376 0.474142 0.441733 0.459015
36 Brezilya 0.63263 0.63173 0.602188 0.512734 0.450486
37 Tayland 0.14429 0.249545 0.371248 0.393173 0.435905
38 Çin 0.254555 0.233022 0.307929 0.378568 0.41801
39 Bulgaristan 0.483749 0.450126 0.442311 0.344109 0.384387
40 Bosna Hersek 0.528119 0.456929 0.358552 0.302574 0.242517
41 Hindistan 0.118969 0.196844 0.210091 0.285222 0.216505
42 Yeni Zelanda 0.359696 0.291932 0.27661 0.255177 0.192239
43 Yunanistan 0.179631 0.146522 0.159244 0.205573 0.190595
44 Letonya 0.265352 0.314476 0.181396 0.174325 0.180464
45 Kolombiya -0.033018 0.065018 0.130317 0.154886 0.165579
46 Litvanya 0.328792 0.30198 0.279794 0.192432 0.161984
47 Georgia 0.172483 0.238245 0.211482 0.217142 0.138305
48 Kostarika -0.143079 -0.11122 -0.046819 -0.057797 0.102606
49 Trinidad ve Tobago 0.1096 0.080107 -0.013316 0.058879 0.096957
50 Panama 0.022614 0.033458 0.107499 0.131178 0.081602
51 Türkiye 0.065294 0.08533 0.096253 0.103766 0.05963
52 Güney Afrika 0.233557 0.266418 0.195963 0.102827 0.055371
53 Uruguay 0.192193 0.150169 0.151318 0.11815 0.023785
54 Lübnan 0.002854 -0.105666 0.009897 0.081991 0.013337
55 Endonezya -0.237833 -0.178447 -0.118525 -0.006918 -0.011234
56 Arnavutluk -0.43934 -0.42106 -0.276055 -0.047386 -0.01742
57 Moldova 0.087567 -0.067187 -0.079771 -0.058476 -0.019165
58 Filipinler -0.29749 -0.278829 -0.051153 -0.067078 -0.025559
59 Arjantin 0.063963 0.061027 0.067484 0.065941 -0.048438
60 Suudi Arabistan 0.245782 0.133691 -0.104429 -0.047194 -0.054635
61 Makedonya 0.07125 -0.023729 -0.014313 0.004857 -0.069498
62 Avustralya 0.052213 -0.033744 -0.031123 -0.06647 -0.073102
63 Venezuela 0.01211 0.168625 -0.020923 -0.136609 -0.07666
64 Şili -0.123718 -0.122233 -0.120653 -0.097452 -0.089827
65 El Salvador -0.014612 -0.030598 -0.077975 -0.09812 -0.125807
66 Ürdün 0.156842 0.199525 0.225435 0.259856 -0.130406
67 Tunus -0.487393 -0.371227 -0.335308 -0.176462 -0.17907
68 Kazakistan 0.133409 -0.153616 -0.260106 -0.296089 -0.213565
69 Kuveyt -0.548267 -0.517091 -0.386139 -0.407039 -0.300179
70 Katar -0.67805 -0.829927 -0.566883 -0.488146 -0.309149
71 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri -0.291874 -0.306447 -0.407031 -0.447912 -0.312063
72 Guetamala -0.234772 -0.23064 -0.221969 -0.314302 -0.397476
73 Mısır -0.51622 -0.409572 -0.367532 -0.432688 -0.40861
74 Togo -0.993679 -1.23014 -0.983632 -0.560002 -0.471307
75 Azerbeycan 0.344791 0.14542 -0.094196 -0.582499 -0.473538
76 Peru -0.519939 -0.452241 -0.454346 -0.504695 -0.537658
77 Zimbabve -0.507259 -0.538359 -0.450373 -0.48607 -0.53834
78 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.558683 -0.7221 -0.55851 -0.502652 -0.541407
79 Paraguay -0.533852 -0.50479 -0.616288 -0.633126 -0.601299
80 Vietnam -0.784948 -0.765394 -0.709704 -0.633173 -0.612566
81 Sri Lanka -0.70323 -0.60947 -0.549153 -0.575275 -0.618172
82 Jamaika -0.605535 -0.673412 -0.737476 -0.616227 -0.636068
83 Kenya -0.662768 -0.601449 -0.605449 -0.513933 -0.653247
84 Namibya -0.811299 -0.753271 -0.663161
85 Fas -0.786999 -0.717755 -0.656 -0.703032 -0.676159
86 Botsvana -0.411647 -0.826433 -0.686412
87 Pakistan -0.825743 -0.799512 -0.835216 -0.809969 -0.689205
88 Özbekistan -0.129301 -0.502809 -0.620734 -0.819991 -0.701587
89 Moğolistan -0.72326 -0.818503 -0.725388 -0.735884 -0.746776
90 Honduras -0.756757 -0.688814 -0.618441 -0.730843 -0.784403
91 Laos -0.57976 -0.806781 -1.05256 -0.928956 -0.789641
92 Nikaragua -0.713839 -0.793998 -0.839711 -0.75545 -0.805578
93 Cezayir -0.802829 -0.741165 -0.843424 -0.906108 -0.808618
94 Bolivya -0.630502 -0.770524 -0.812611 -0.881527 -0.836185
95 İran -0.760938 -0.816195 -0.943975 -0.875579 -0.837151
96 Ekvador -0.97281 -0.888551 -0.841814 -0.871608 -0.878596
97 Senegal -0.973323 -0.87581 -0.793548 -0.888731 -0.931708
98 Umman -0.518991 -0.615451 -0.620443 -0.947925 -0.932646
99 Etiyopya -1.34347 -1.08673 -1.09717 -0.99011 -0.933984
100 Türkmenistan -0.792971 -0.815293 -0.995334 -1.1145 -0.943435
101 Mozambik -0.642561 -0.134453 -0.308848 -0.754133 -0.949386
102 Moritanya -1.13432 -0.758452 -0.730751 -0.797881 -0.951643
103 Zambiya -0.846865 -0.960927 -0.990725 -1.10573 -0.99658
104 Bangladeş -1.08508 -1.07312 -0.997463 -0.995853 -1.03815
105 Kamboçya -1.36686 -1.22901 -1.15353 -1.04926 -1.04947
106 Suriye -1.0725 -1.05652 -1.02673 -1.04357 -1.08415
107 Kongo Demokratik Cumhuriyeti -1.33985 -1.52529 -1.27315 -1.1108 -1.10486
108 Gana -1.23054 -1.34344 -1.29443 -1.17101 -1.13735
109 Fildişi Sahili -1.26317 -1.30078 -1.156 -1.08336 -1.14553
110 Madagaskar -1.159 -1.1058 -1.16221 -1.08675 -1.15522
111 Birmanya -1.24911 -1.15924 -1.30999 -1.29669 -1.18614
112 Gabon -1.55086 -1.14666 -1.18934 -0.920493 -1.26716
113 Tanzanya -1.29562 -1.15902 -1.27194 -1.23882 -1.27368
114 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -1.24502 -1.45647 -1.42348 -1.25988 -1.30159
115 Sudan -1.21251 -1.15646 -1.44871 -1.48732 -1.4476
116 Yemen -1.50222 -1.60913 -1.51089 -1.57309 -1.48922
117 Kamerun -1.83434 -1.81816 -1.77589 -1.76353 -1.53014
118 Gine -1.76458 -1.80391 -1.70685 -1.76285 -1.72383
119 Nijerya -2.10267 -2.0675 -2.02891 -1.99444 -1.91639
120 Angora -1.60166 -1.61325 -1.67367 -1.71443 -2.04759