The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
1 Japonya 2.45075 2.47862 2.46767 2.40412 2.34652
2 Almanya 2.19574 2.20445 2.15958 2.11126 2.01485
3 İsviçre 2.12764 2.05783 2.06907 2.05479 1.99311
4 İsveç 2.09665 2.08697 2.02943 1.94426 1.91852
5 Finlandiya 1.80769 1.81559 1.80046 1.77725 1.77327
6 Büyük Britanya 1.94824 1.89629 1.77065 1.72653 1.7096
7 Avusturya 1.76393 1.81965 1.74605 1.7452 1.70293
8 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.85046 1.76594 1.74324 1.66414 1.62483
9 Singapur 1.53699 1.63902 1.5652 1.46932 1.55653
10 Güney Kore 1.31421 1.27258 1.41097 1.52046 1.54709
11 Çek Cumhuriyeti 1.55938 1.53388 1.54784 1.55209 1.52445
12 Fransa 1.60873 1.55541 1.54456 1.50134 1.47143
13 Slovenya 1.42282 1.55648 1.54609 1.49585 1.44105
14 Danimarka 1.50739 1.50872 1.4818 1.44935 1.40257
15 Macaristan 1.11232 1.15856 1.17404 1.2364 1.30326
16 İtalya 1.37375 1.3861 1.39804 1.34865 1.29984
17 İrlanda 1.62751 1.51601 1.3506 1.37041 1.29819
18 Belçika 1.37738 1.33257 1.27927 1.23122 1.26407
19 Slovakya 1.20213 1.20926 1.28788 1.27784 1.20851
20 Hollanda 1.21646 1.18126 1.18347 1.09357 1.09737
21 İsrail 1.04926 1.1044 1.0958 1.04361 1.08661
22 Meksika 1.02195 0.978828 0.986745 1.10303 1.06339
23 İspanya 1.04465 1.04322 1.0347 1.02466 1.02372
24 Polonya 0.897007 0.899269 0.967138 0.968439 0.978851
25 Hırvatistan 0.645311 0.681113 0.735727 0.787117 0.842586
26 Kanada 0.919277 0.862716 0.848054 0.811793 0.789332
27 Malezya 0.753853 0.854059 0.795607 0.781241 0.716039
28 Estonya 0.515964 0.562663 0.674146 0.694548 0.713069
29 Belarus 0.723122 0.832963 0.858138 0.856248 0.682706
30 Sırbistan 0.620072 0.678498
31 Romanya 0.373828 0.320218 0.42384 0.493627 0.673123
32 Norveç 0.758139 0.775049 0.757271 0.716319 0.660506
33 Portekiz 0.488495 0.559365 0.627309 0.638432 0.637016
34 Çin 0.442061 0.452979 0.474971 0.587449 0.632635
35 Ukrayna 0.488237 0.551859 0.595211 0.553144 0.601226
36 Letonya 0.311667 0.309156 0.427594 0.532376 0.549968
37 Brezilya 0.42281 0.399357 0.450112 0.477157 0.548606
38 Bosna Hersek 0.210007 0.365334 0.429642 0.52393 0.529734
39 Hong Kong 0.549568 0.567609 0.574415 0.5907 0.527091
40 Litvanya 0.164931 0.196164 0.309178 0.448797 0.521501
41 Rusya 0.65224 0.568381 0.557305 0.607811 0.510294
42 Tayland 0.418108 0.446709 0.463214 0.433048 0.491304
43 Türkiye 0.176945 0.177247 0.252509 0.366668 0.413431
44 Bulgaristan 0.365341 0.309366 0.34386 0.373395 0.410246
45 Yeni Zelanda 0.25454 0.287348 0.334674 0.348336 0.340088
46 Lübnan -0.056157 -0.017576 0.113553 0.169187 0.298636
47 Panama 0.033435 0.025462 0.036751 0.120865 0.262895
48 Yunanistan 0.221214 0.210503 0.233397 0.172724 0.204131
49 Hindistan 0.176804 0.152537 0.158145 0.167513 0.168601
50 Güney Afrika 0.128366 0.094685 0.16654 0.237984 0.165269
51 Filipinler -0.005396 -0.0344 -0.119035 -0.000206 0.123978
52 Ürdün -0.113429 0.012317 -0.044752 0.009857 0.116103
53 Arjantin -0.022571 0.002533 0.03593 0.053536 0.073768
54 Uruguay 0.096728 -0.045061 0.017114 0.009544 0.065203
55 Kolombiya 0.141137 0.108143 0.108932 0.053324 0.024946
56 Tunus -0.316525 -0.279088 -0.159174 -0.131907 -0.002222
57 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri -0.157405 -0.090661 -0.085822 0.027597 -0.021976
58 Kostarika 0.010613 -0.004518 0.006471 -0.074199 -0.022522
59 Katar -0.418974 0.1045 0.024745 -0.164568 -0.052826
60 Moldova 0.042335 -0.019115 -0.071912 -0.133663 -0.072815
61 Endonezya -0.015577 -0.079228 -0.03753 -0.118449 -0.08396
62 Suudi Arabistan 0.104983 0.155848 -0.074557 -0.14292 -0.153061
63 Trinidad ve Tobago 0.071435 0.003869 0.033114 -0.015152 -0.153895
64 Makedonya -0.172163 -0.062273 -0.107521 -0.191644 -0.17045
65 Avustralya -0.038353 -0.218672 -0.213502 -0.155239 -0.171363
66 Şili -0.069191 -0.150324 -0.150391 -0.196433 -0.171878
67 El Salvador -0.102685 -0.094959 -0.080838 -0.116526 -0.189023
68 Mısır -0.368092 -0.351883 -0.313441 -0.225445 -0.220008
69 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.469881 -0.300896 -0.332228 -0.211474 -0.222327
70 Guetamala -0.408678 -0.353519 -0.260139 -0.295499 -0.227969
71 Georgia 0.178932 -0.17425 -0.18585 -0.305433 -0.257126
72 Umman -0.745175 -0.540399 -0.792679 -0.520017 -0.267441
73 Jamaika -0.538303 -0.294213 -0.307798 -0.427749 -0.281016
74 Kazakistan -0.102081 -0.271761 -0.249486 -0.208866 -0.340398
75 Venezuela -0.062459 -0.134651 -0.147508 -0.163963 -0.342388
76 Kuveyt -0.156717 -0.11916 -0.268955 -0.163299 -0.350656
77 Vietnam -0.630272 -0.653033 -0.632908 -0.518922 -0.378907
78 Sri Lanka -0.62927 -0.59254 -0.543395 -0.49913 -0.429014
79 Arnavutluk -0.02384 -0.128714 -0.245883 -0.395101 -0.490889
80 Özbekistan -0.463409 -0.453 -0.433318 -0.430205 -0.494788
81 Zimbabve -0.343785 -0.373302 -0.395862 -0.404289 -0.495619
82 Fas -0.76984 -0.648625 -0.48776 -0.504934 -0.522127
83 Pakistan -0.751032 -0.770235 -0.789144 -0.628576 -0.562095
84 Paraguay -0.566719 -0.603935 -0.516896 -0.602863 -0.582084
85 Peru -0.514557 -0.648479 -0.579638 -0.554171 -0.614336
86 Honduras -0.656674 -0.566724 -0.676137 -0.74113 -0.623958
87 Kenya -0.575552 -0.701251 -0.6198 -0.703524 -0.680229
88 Cezayir -0.875592 -1.11 -1.11468 -0.788727 -0.682755
89 Suriye -0.941886 -0.86175 -0.749744 -0.694426 -0.685109
90 İran -0.853785 -0.881575 -0.898796 -0.79443 -0.750568
91 Laos -0.843126 -1.01988 -0.891806 -0.883054 -0.820657
92 Ekvador -0.856247 -0.846191 -0.77456 -0.851284 -0.834038
93 Bolivya -0.797802 -0.919345 -0.856918 -0.851524 -0.871062
94 Senegal -0.972446 -0.872446 -0.809369 -0.821983 -0.889482
95 Botsvana -0.818465 -0.708473 -0.845061 -0.856364 -0.891555
96 Togo -0.676074 -0.758799 -0.856163 -0.931563 -0.895164
97 Nikaragua -0.807707 -0.763565 -0.820232 -0.892176 -0.900827
98 Türkmenistan -0.952721 -0.940244 -0.915679 -0.757745 -0.917194
99 Zambiya -1.09653 -0.934754 -0.925683 -1.17274 -0.921299
100 Namibya -0.554921 -0.655761 -0.805754 -0.846134 -0.936692
101 Gabon -1.6291 -0.956786 -1.31646 -1.26555 -0.961084
102 Bangladeş -1.1201 -1.23386 -1.17652 -1.19826 -1.01275
103 Moğolistan -0.681431 -0.865264 -0.924295 -0.971723 -1.03852
104 Gana -1.24972 -1.35863 -1.38268 -1.22288 -1.05022
105 Madagaskar -1.20383 -1.20019 -1.18539 -1.11331 -1.08764
106 Azerbeycan -0.36504 -0.595619 -0.769416 -0.981761 -1.08907
107 Etiyopya -0.93631 -1.1606 -0.937456 -1.05951 -1.14921
108 Kongo Demokratik Cumhuriyeti -1.1042 -1.16123 -1.34175 -1.35887 -1.17151
109 Tanzanya -1.14524 -1.19819 -1.17276 -1.19109 -1.17687
110 Kamboçya -1.02579 -1.14921 -1.17042 -1.20287 -1.2005
111 Birmanya -1.23973 -1.3014 -1.23916 -1.24742 -1.20659
112 Mozambik -1.20899 -1.34734 -1.1731 -1.2241 -1.27774
113 Fildişi Sahili -1.23738 -1.27946 -1.2167 -1.31008 -1.29502
114 Yemen -1.44892 -1.56273 -1.54465 -1.51778 -1.39501
115 Gine -1.59046 -1.3383 -1.23361 -1.22219 -1.53055
116 Kamerun -1.45477 -1.55106 -1.81234 -1.80901 -1.62851
117 Moritanya -0.976701 -1.53823 -1.22737 -1.73472 -1.82521
118 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -1.35403 -1.41438 -1.56017 -1.6858 -1.82685
119 Angora -2.06924 -0.705732 -0.787959 -0.798225 -1.91304
120 Nijerya -2.05963 -2.40836 -2.32188 -2.1849 -2.06466
121 Sudan -1.5408 -1.57514 -1.82539 -1.99046 -2.07678