The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Ülke 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1 Japonya 2.23856 2.17852 2.11934 2.31329 2.32408
2 İsviçre 1.92034 1.91828 1.91575 1.95964 2.01041
3 Almanya 1.95078 1.91653 1.88894 1.9408 1.87347
4 İsveç 1.89436 1.80167 1.75419 1.80518 1.75179
5 Avusturya 1.68159 1.69369 1.68617 1.7891 1.71686
6 Singapur 1.49843 1.57804 1.58854 1.68651 1.70347
7 Çek Cumhuriyeti 1.5676 1.56901 1.55689 1.69489 1.68896
8 Güney Kore 1.52745 1.49631 1.57505 1.70696 1.64658
9 Finlandiya 1.75639 1.71426 1.67979 1.71439 1.61173
10 Macaristan 1.35814 1.3362 1.39419 1.53397 1.52192
11 Büyük Britanya 1.67044 1.61184 1.57193 1.54878 1.49378
12 Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 1.58866 1.53293 1.49428 1.49138 1.45359
13 Slovenya 1.39082 1.41407 1.38479 1.46906 1.43073
14 Fransa 1.46951 1.46536 1.45099 1.43611 1.36854
15 Slovakya 1.26737 1.271 1.35695 1.37252 1.3272
16 İtalya 1.3267 1.35289 1.34589 1.33488 1.31024
17 İsrail 1.21518 1.19138 1.09395 1.21174 1.27127
18 İrlanda 1.35691 1.37428 1.33093 1.1731 1.24971
19 Danimarka 1.33589 1.30232 1.29129 1.2369 1.13685
20 Hong Kong 0.582715 0.498958 0.508935 0.801652 1.09895
21 Belçika 1.22398 1.18347 1.1659 1.13515 1.04707
22 Çin 0.715732 0.753508 0.774908 0.909906 1.00792
23 Tayland 0.510058 0.606687 0.736971 0.870845 0.964292
24 Polonya 1.0255 1.02992 1.03324 1.07468 0.960828
25 Meksika 1.08324 0.995923 1.00189 1.00796 0.954246
26 Hırvatistan 0.806099 0.853091 0.926024 0.91927 0.92595
27 Malezya 0.691407 0.624253 0.588052 0.791729 0.91952
28 Hollanda 1.10431 1.04799 1.09691 0.952353 0.885129
29 İspanya 1.01644 1.02007 1.01742 0.980784 0.842403
30 Belarus 0.690402 0.668625 0.675162 0.918398 0.82272
31 Estonya 0.710075 0.716777 0.704934 0.746338 0.76017
32 Panama 0.327072 0.406595 0.456574 0.630553 0.741643
33 Litvanya 0.571855 0.518934 0.549397 0.64032 0.722513
34 Romanya 0.731384 0.685378 0.698277 0.73466 0.70694
35 Portekiz 0.677586 0.6909 0.706405 0.650139 0.6184
36 Norveç 0.563568 0.588332 0.635977 0.535507 0.571734
37 Letonya 0.61794 0.60544 0.626987 0.600318 0.571625
38 Sırbistan 0.63928 0.658953 0.621737 0.590053 0.562507
39 Bosna Hersek 0.553484 0.522361 0.574773 0.592368 0.545884
40 Kanada 0.741557 0.711973 0.703779 0.526191 0.534847
41 Bulgaristan 0.446085 0.39622 0.467999 0.447953 0.497365
42 Ukrayna 0.551676 0.526113 0.51783 0.480965 0.469842
43 Türkiye 0.434059 0.408188 0.432695 0.42938 0.450234
44 Filipinler 0.193846 0.185253 0.209171 0.331523 0.394726
45 Tunus 0.045962 -0.002907 0.073213 0.233429 0.291069
46 Lübnan 0.330028 0.365837 0.253783 0.293449 0.281872
47 Kostarika 0.076485 0.099231 0.10939 0.024263 0.247592
48 Ürdün 0.072889 0.243351 0.244437 0.161675 0.216056
49 Yeni Zelanda 0.314978 0.224349 0.14369 0.064004 0.166665
50 Brezilya 0.396395 0.265535 0.248326 0.190826 0.161553
51 Hindistan 0.195512 0.156613 0.111379 0.091946 0.144541
52 Moldova -0.027445 -0.045761 -0.016908 0.049706 0.115221
53 Rusya 0.262064 0.236851 0.153215 0.009965 0.077047
54 Kolombiya 0.220323 0.21155 0.18691 -0.001219 0.049744
55 Uruguay 0.0148 0.092839 0.201715 0.081756 -0.003597
56 El Salvador -0.061823 -0.081826 -0.049824 -0.117335 -0.007233
57 Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri -0.087372 -0.090659 0.022855 0.030733 -0.009763
58 Yunanistan 0.176237 0.246401 0.243817 0.052732 -0.02161
59 Güney Afrika 0.142773 0.074112 0.119045 0.016592 -0.023795
60 Suudi Arabistan -0.587461 -0.424999 0.159707 -0.074789 -0.07214
61 Endonezya -0.020326 -0.071984 -0.12726 -0.143199 -0.087123
62 Vietnam -0.320109 -0.350821 -0.350102 -0.215986 -0.104485
63 Makedonya -0.147629 -0.093479 -0.074848 -0.165571 -0.146735
64 Arjantin 0.077066 0.071968 0.03248 -0.063178 -0.148047
65 Georgia -0.480803 -0.332959 -0.285249 -0.152888 -0.168891
66 Namibya -0.64927 -0.455053 -0.528921 -0.602309 -0.241151
67 Dominik Cumhuriyeti -0.167914 -0.225693 -0.237717 -0.26414 -0.256286
68 Guetamala -0.119904 -0.174861 -0.207441 -0.390539 -0.293485
69 Mısır -0.203256 -0.246454 -0.222178 -0.289977 -0.321576
70 Şili -0.22253 -0.222266 -0.244314 -0.328124 -0.333627
71 Jamaika -0.122977 -0.185574 -0.177172 -0.215289 -0.349499
72 Sri Lanka -0.413415 -0.404041 -0.462231 -0.482129 -0.368732
73 Katar -0.332957 -0.175169 -0.321962 -0.395827 -0.390929
74 Honduras -0.634949 -0.726013 -0.687012 -0.690727 -0.398168
75 Kuveyt -0.576707 -0.561737 -0.273291 -0.296786 -0.436697
76 Arnavutluk 0.151114 0.563279 0.552788 0.272749 -0.472586
77 Avustralya -0.210701 -0.331165 -0.397884 -0.516626 -0.528256
78 Özbekistan -0.381779 -0.464363 -0.440298 -0.555588 -0.531504
79 Botsvana -0.499249 0.160551 0.103461 -0.354011 -0.532549
80 Fas -0.422183 -0.495026 -0.543964 -0.509268 -0.535805
81 Kamerun -1.59003 -1.45045 -1.64686 -0.618845 -0.546339
82 Kenya -0.50892 -0.515603 -0.462247 -0.610053 -0.580113
83 Zambiya -0.984426 -1.06916 -1.01419 -0.750633 -0.621731
84 Senegal -0.910768 -1.00621 -1.09485 -0.810511 -0.622244
85 Paraguay -0.592209 -0.511621 -0.577246 -0.619805 -0.645452
86 Ekvador -0.803638 -0.867623 -0.7082 -0.770023 -0.708563
87 Nikaragua -0.69023 -0.690234 -0.763813 -0.883107 -0.71229
88 Madagaskar -0.98895 -0.99845 -1.02866 -0.831354 -0.726138
89 Tanzanya -1.1291 -1.0167 -1.07147 -0.995243 -0.730645
90 Peru -0.635521 -0.669472 -0.63866 -0.746415 -0.742204
91 Umman -0.413821 -0.385965 -0.217931 -0.431956 -0.742942
92 Togo -0.707087 -0.825125 -0.965744 -0.837184 -0.778208
93 Kazakistan -0.457024 -0.358499 -0.463165 -0.853388 -0.787489
94 Pakistan -0.521128 -0.549741 -0.595481 -0.752351 -0.805746
95 Bolivya -0.795241 -0.828261 -0.821025 -0.939743 -0.853344
96 Trinidad ve Tobago -0.665608 -0.578275 -0.466174 -0.567857 -0.858712
97 İran -1.04616 -1.04947 -1.03542 -1.00321 -0.886393
98 Bangladeş -0.936713 -0.927904 -1.00757 -1.10503 -0.943499
99 Kamboçya -1.06295 -0.985864 -1.04752 -1.20676 -0.95203
100 Zimbabve -0.452638 -0.66792 -0.803228 -0.918402 -1.00205
101 Gana -1.01148 -0.965165 -1.12736 -1.05444 -1.00907
102 Laos -0.903238 -0.957344 -0.991139 -1.01474 -1.05514
103 Fildişi Sahili -1.26803 -1.36195 -1.4005 -1.20641 -1.0558
104 Türkmenistan -0.891974 -0.8061 -0.783954 -1.00593 -1.09788
105 Kongo Cumhuriyeti -1.89518 -1.79244 -1.77145 -1.21695 -1.12329
106 Venezuela -0.674475 -0.594428 -0.600758 -0.811479 -1.12529
107 Yemen -1.48326 -1.37207 -1.54769 -1.22062 -1.14902
108 Etiyopya -1.3133 -1.30834 -1.2717 -1.26465 -1.15076
109 Mozambik -1.30539 -1.27566 -1.34061 -1.3111 -1.16195
110 Kongo Demokratik Cumhuriyeti -1.11877 -1.23828 -1.06271 -1.06695 -1.29544
111 Moğolistan -0.996349 -0.920288 -1.0525 -1.20509 -1.35158
112 Gabon -0.693013 -0.749222 -1.09114 -0.829728 -1.36163
113 Azerbeycan -1.00637 -1.08488 -1.08757 -1.44623 -1.50891
114 Cezayir -1.03209 -1.07781 -1.15498 -1.28473 -1.56777
115 Nijerya -2.53077 -2.76425 -2.35951 -1.71191 -1.61348
116 Sudan -1.94729 -2.02485 -1.8002 -1.93445 -1.65831
117 Gine -1.58997 -1.71668 -1.82734 -1.72675 -1.66077
118 Moritanya -1.78088 -1.80625 -1.79613 -1.86292 -1.6776
119 Angora -1.95195 -1.96257 -2.01309 -2.09087 -2.79136
120 Suriye -0.528191 -0.499214 -0.507876 -0.670493
121 Birmanya -1.19618 -1.24182 -1.20578 -1.27821