The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Quốc gia 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Sơn mài Nhật 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.27782
2 Thụy Sĩ 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.17213
3 Đức 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 2.10076
4 Thụy Điển 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 1.86322
5 Nam Triều Tiên 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 1.83839
6 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 1.7998
7 Hoa Kỳ 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.77468
8 Cộng hòa Séc 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.75172
9 Vương quốc Anh 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.54403
10 Hungary 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.50353
11 Ireland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.4875
12 Pháp 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.48178
13 Slovakia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.45202
14 Đan Mạch 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 1.30706
15 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.30363
16 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 1.27347
17 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 1.236
18 Ý 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.22921
19 Na Uy 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 1.21448
20 Ba Lan 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 1.21063
21 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.07889
22 Nga 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 1.02807
23 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 1.01713
24 Tây Ban Nha 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.944616
25 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.910243
26 Latvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.872009
27 Croatia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.85713
28 Trung Quốc 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 0.850874
29 Nước Lithuania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.805056
30 Brazil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 0.783805
31 Hồng Kông 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 0.770096
32 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.730838
33 New Zealand 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 0.659255
34 Bosnia và Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.62899
35 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.570308
36 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.568975
37 Ấn Độ 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.533078
38 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 0.495774
39 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 0.488584
40 Bồ Đào Nha 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.481395
41 các Tiểu Vương Quốc Ả Rập Thống Nhất 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.4501
42 Nam Phi 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 0.42691
43 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 0.40826
44 Gà tây 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.371222
45 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 0.356488
46 Hy Lạp 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 0.353763
47 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 0.323295
48 Bahrain 0.274286
49 Úc -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 0.273459
50 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 0.254851
51 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 0.180979
52 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 0.169247
53 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 0.154263
54 Kyrgyzstan 0.129527
55 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 0.0669913
56 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 0.0
57 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 0.0
58 Bỉ 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.0
59 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 -0.025504
60 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0401054
61 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.0478946
62 Ai Cập -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.0564826
63 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.0734745
64 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.0971355
65 Cộng hòa Dominica -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.145607
66 Armenia -0.213839
67 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.236181
68 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -0.316394
69 Việt Nam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973 -0.323136
70 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.364908
71 Mauritius -0.375307
72 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.381733
73 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.464026
74 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -0.510255
75 Mông Cổ -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -0.554225
76 Morocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.555949
77 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -0.556652
78 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -0.572574
79 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -0.589646
80 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.644255
81 Mali -0.678011
82 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -0.80395
83 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -0.901479
84 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -0.901528
85 Ethiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -0.959502
86 Campuchia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.964806
87 Lào -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.981452
88 Miến Điện -1.27821 -1.13827
89 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.22675
90 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
91 Thái Lan 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
92 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
93 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
94 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
95 Đi -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
96 Saudi Arabia -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
97 Cộng hòa Congo -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
98 Ukraina 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
99 Cộng hòa Dân chủ Congo -1.06695 -1.29544
100 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
101 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
102 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
103 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
104 Phần Lan 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
105 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
106 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
107 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
108 Áo 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
109 Syria -0.670493
110 Lebanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
111 Cameroon -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
112 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
113 Trinidad và Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
114 Hà Lan 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
115 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
116 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
117 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
118 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
119 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
120 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
121 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
122 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
123 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
124 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
125 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
126 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422