The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) and the Product Complexity Index (PCI) are, respectively, measures of the relative knowledge intensity of an economy or a product. ECI measures the knowledge intensity of an economy by considering the knowledge intensity of the products it exports. PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters. This circular argument is mathematically tractable and can be used to construct relative measures of the knowledge intensity of economies and products (see methodology section for more details).

ECI has been validated as a relevant economic measure by showing its ability to predict future economic growth (see Hidalgo and Hausmann 2009), and explain international variations in income inequality (see Hartmann et al. 2017.

This page includes rankings using the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).

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Year Range

Quốc gia 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
1 Sơn mài Nhật 2.31329 2.32408 2.37352 2.31842 2.34767 2.61516
2 Nam Triều Tiên 1.70696 1.64658 1.82762 1.90646 1.97403 2.37378
3 Thụy Sĩ 1.95964 2.01041 2.05181 1.99456 2.12416 2.33787
4 Singapore 1.68651 1.70347 1.71717 1.71171 1.72081 2.25069
5 Đức 1.9408 1.87347 1.84608 1.81367 1.91906 1.89207
6 Hồng Kông 0.801652 1.09895 1.26313 1.35236 1.35536 1.47134
7 Cộng hòa Séc 1.69489 1.68896 1.53381 1.52129 1.56023 1.42049
8 Hoa Kỳ 1.49138 1.45359 1.43702 1.30167 1.32592 1.3899
9 Vương quốc Anh 1.54878 1.49378 1.45544 1.40296 1.34514 1.36113
10 Hungary 1.53397 1.52192 1.43941 1.38229 1.40749 1.24403
11 Israel 1.21174 1.27127 1.22703 1.14081 1.16926 1.17832
12 Slovakia 1.37252 1.3272 1.21794 1.20436 1.27947 1.16945
13 Ý 1.33488 1.31024 1.21525 1.24155 1.24787 1.13343
14 Pháp 1.43611 1.36854 1.24155 1.15748 1.20672 1.13204
15 Malaysia 0.791729 0.91952 0.810485 0.828817 0.971262 1.12618
16 Ireland 1.1731 1.24971 1.28901 1.22044 1.31565 1.10564
17 Trung Quốc 0.909906 1.00792 1.04036 1.16379 1.17107 1.00689
18 Bỉ 1.13515 1.04707 0.951062 0.90581 0.9484 0.978514
19 Mexico 1.00796 0.954246 0.846744 0.953003 0.959052 0.75823
20 Ba Lan 1.07468 0.960828 0.817343 0.839266 0.832384 0.672875
21 Đan Mạch 1.2369 1.13685 0.995356 0.95349 0.885645 0.662894
22 Estonia 0.746338 0.76017 0.68394 0.752262 0.738564 0.545405
23 Na Uy 0.535507 0.571734 0.614676 0.667969 0.682789 0.518245
24 Croatia 0.91927 0.92595 0.822129 0.837178 0.745808 0.491664
25 Tây Ban Nha 0.980784 0.842403 0.700457 0.701443 0.656088 0.431715
26 Belarus 0.918398 0.82272 0.689295 0.731427 0.702788 0.426
27 Philippines 0.331523 0.394726 0.341858 0.477815 0.381438 0.389823
28 Bosnia và Herzegovina 0.592368 0.545884 0.562599 0.578374 0.486929 0.368803
29 các Tiểu Vương Quốc Ả Rập Thống Nhất 0.030733 -0.009763 -0.090032 -0.362895 -0.251409 0.304849
30 Nước Lithuania 0.64032 0.722513 0.673455 0.63807 0.561721 0.252274
31 Bồ Đào Nha 0.650139 0.6184 0.433862 0.4937 0.480985 0.213795
32 Ấn Độ 0.091946 0.144541 -0.134587 -0.014696 0.016682 0.141007
33 Canada 0.526191 0.534847 0.421886 0.411362 0.3821 0.140373
34 Bulgaria 0.447953 0.497365 0.278113 0.290812 0.318417 0.139368
35 Serbia 0.590053 0.562507 0.361921 0.366673 0.316878 0.114576
36 Nga 0.009965 0.077047 0.048022 0.008439 -0.026792 0.049962
37 Gà tây 0.42938 0.450234 0.287393 0.378481 0.364792 0.0317636
38 Latvia 0.600318 0.571625 0.478137 0.431584 0.373305 0.0284908
39 Tunisia 0.233429 0.291069 0.16411 0.214778 0.163278 0.00202402
40 Hy Lạp 0.052732 -0.02161 -0.210378 -0.167862 -0.157527 -0.0404171
41 Brazil 0.190826 0.161553 0.032264 -0.151225 -0.079082 -0.0835801
42 Indonesia -0.143199 -0.087123 -0.160233 -0.102013 -0.088124 -0.0852673
43 Panama 0.630553 0.741643 0.710402 -0.558959 -0.560582 -0.116362
44 Costa Rica 0.024263 0.247592 0.158575 0.093993 0.005485 -0.159627
45 Colombia -0.001219 0.049744 -0.234596 -0.194463 -0.216272 -0.19239
46 Jordan 0.161675 0.216056 -0.140418 -0.010019 -0.004415 -0.221577
47 El Salvador -0.117335 -0.007233 -0.145168 -0.070683 -0.133223 -0.274391
48 Nam Phi 0.016592 -0.023795 -0.192079 -0.204966 -0.188863 -0.295213
49 Oman -0.431956 -0.742942 -0.874505 -0.774658 -0.671414 -0.382714
50 Ai Cập -0.289977 -0.321576 -0.488663 -0.341403 -0.271803 -0.395968
51 Mauritius -0.40707
52 Kyrgyzstan -0.457679
53 Sri Lanka -0.482129 -0.368732 -0.530163 -0.369437 -0.465842 -0.465951
54 New Zealand 0.064004 0.166665 -0.096978 -0.119421 -0.206663 -0.472886
55 Moldova 0.049706 0.115221 -0.019913 -0.103664 -0.214357 -0.481255
56 Uruguay 0.081756 -0.003597 -0.330617 -0.349791 -0.267658 -0.501094
57 Cộng hòa Dominica -0.26414 -0.256286 -0.406432 -0.40546 -0.457736 -0.501275
58 Macedonia -0.165571 -0.146735 -0.323051 -0.216515 -0.371769 -0.606872
59 Georgia -0.152888 -0.168891 -0.419841 -0.457954 -0.455472 -0.634878
60 Jamaica -0.215289 -0.349499 -0.64931 -0.787602 -0.683642 -0.694666
61 Thụy Điển 1.80518 1.75179 1.75214 1.6459 1.61477 -0.714396
62 Senegal -0.810511 -0.622244 -0.744196 -0.721723 -0.847701 -0.746684
63 Campuchia -1.20676 -0.95203 -0.904026 -0.723043 -0.534499 -0.750174
64 Kazakhstan -0.853388 -0.787489 -0.961147 -1.00924 -0.994658 -0.781491
65 Namibia -0.602309 -0.241151 -0.328879 -0.381863 -0.397842 -0.834151
66 Lào -1.01474 -1.05514 -0.845389
67 Albania 0.272749 -0.472586 -0.684933 -0.542079 -0.650885 -0.871937
68 Argentina -0.063178 -0.148047 -0.496513 -0.502072 -0.528185 -0.882143
69 Chile -0.328124 -0.333627 -0.499261 -0.532363 -0.592885 -0.899662
70 Morocco -0.509268 -0.535805 -0.774475 -0.559651 -0.747625 -0.944238
71 Úc -0.516626 -0.528256 -0.816851 -0.846322 -0.763708 -0.972731
72 Algeria -1.28473 -1.56777 -2.08154 -1.77252 -1.6871 -0.99361
73 Paraguay -0.619805 -0.645452 -0.982503 -1.10231 -1.05565 -1.06909
74 Peru -0.746415 -0.742204 -1.01445 -0.956349 -0.986909 -1.0828
75 Mali -1.12138
76 Ghana -1.05444 -1.00907 -1.27263 -1.47184 -1.15991 -1.12468
77 Zimbabwe -0.918402 -1.00205 -1.04674 -0.844104 -0.926026 -1.13478
78 Pakistan -0.752351 -0.805746 -1.03613 -0.86519 -0.889031 -1.13883
79 Ethiopia -1.26465 -1.15076 -1.46341 -1.56239 -1.46649 -1.16391
80 Madagascar -0.831354 -0.726138 -0.823322 -0.820193 -0.964509 -1.18288
81 Botswana -0.354011 -0.532549 -0.574288 -0.790862 -0.877179 -1.22746
82 Tanzania -0.995243 -0.730645 -0.919298 -1.03347 -1.0393 -1.23583
83 Ecuador -0.770023 -0.708563 -1.06674 -1.30875 -1.33499 -1.31897
84 Mông Cổ -1.20509 -1.35158 -1.67769 -1.55696 -1.27419 -1.67118
85 Mauritania -1.86292 -1.6776 -2.34538
86 Iran -1.00321 -0.886393 -0.934617
87 Thái Lan 0.870845 0.964292 0.87724 0.955651 1.05247
88 Yemen -1.22062 -1.14902 -1.34438 -1.30363
89 Venezuela -0.811479 -1.12529 -0.942948
90 Romania 0.73466 0.70694 0.751166 0.787654 0.82995
91 Đi -0.837184 -0.778208 -0.671987 -0.462205 -0.371802
92 Saudi Arabia -0.074789 -0.07214 -0.462099 -0.369927 -0.355486
93 Cộng hòa Congo -1.21695 -1.12329 -0.675039 -0.730753 -0.814235
94 Ukraina 0.480965 0.469842 0.28954 0.268345 0.2257
95 Việt Nam -0.215986 -0.104485 -0.231462 -0.129961 -0.06973
96 Cộng hòa Dân chủ Congo -1.06695 -1.29544
97 Gabon -0.829728 -1.36163
98 Angola -2.09087 -2.79136
99 Kuwait -0.296786 -0.436697 -1.49314 -0.836979 -0.789111
100 Nicaragua -0.883107 -0.71229 -0.955061 -1.00073 -1.13505
101 Phần Lan 1.71439 1.61173 1.57477 1.49895 1.45829
102 Sudan -1.93445 -1.65831 -1.873 -1.84461 -1.86774
103 Nigeria -1.71191 -1.61348 -1.73702 -1.72001 -1.79177
104 Kenya -0.610053 -0.580113 -0.616658 -0.51908 -0.57392
105 Áo 1.7891 1.71686 1.72767 1.64981 1.66445
106 Syria -0.670493
107 Lebanon 0.293449 0.281872 0.107992 0.177455 0.151603
108 Cameroon -0.618845 -0.546339 -0.69924 -0.841034 -1.00906
109 Miến Điện -1.27821
110 Mozambique -1.3111 -1.16195 -1.22607 -1.2084 -1.14672
111 Trinidad và Tobago -0.567857 -0.858712
112 Hà Lan 0.952353 0.885129 0.818227 0.756212 0.860275
113 Qatar -0.395827 -0.390929 -0.41667 -0.264365 -0.525304
114 Turkmenistan -1.00593 -1.09788
115 Honduras -0.690727 -0.398168 -0.429599 -0.370913 -0.408544
116 Zambia -0.750633 -0.621731 -0.731336 -0.544915 -0.562239
117 Uzbekistan -0.555588 -0.531504
118 Bangladesh -1.10503 -0.943499 -1.17559
119 Guinea -1.72675 -1.66077 -2.17828 -1.77331
120 Cote d'Ivoire -1.20641 -1.0558 -1.05279 -1.17654 -1.14491
121 Bolivia -0.939743 -0.853344 -1.16084 -1.18122 -1.29269
122 Azerbaijan -1.44623 -1.50891 -1.44358 -1.7818 -1.63889
123 Slovenia 1.46906 1.43073 1.4359 1.41088 1.39199
124 Guatemala -0.390539 -0.293485 -0.505798 -0.412311 -0.440422